Papilionidae – revised GloBIS/GART species checklist  (2nd draft)

Prepared by Christoph L. Häuser, in cooperation with Rienk de Jong, Gerardo Lamas, Robert K. Robbins, Campbell Smith & Richard I. Vane-Wright.

Last changes: 28th July 2005

lepibull.gif (1046 Byte) - all taxa are listed in pure alphabetic order - sequence is no indication of relationship(s)!
lepibull.gif (1046 Byte) - subordinate names and taxa with species status disputed are listed under the respective species name and indented;
lepibull.gif (1046 Byte) - taxa with an asterisk * at the end are annotated (comments below, names in alphabetic order)

PAPILIONIDAE Latreille, [1802] [551 spp.]

Baroniinae Bryk, 1913 [1 sp.]

Baronia Salvin, 1893
Baronia brevicornis Salvin, 1893

Parnassiinae Duponchel, [1835] [66 spp.]
Parnassiini Duponchel, [1835]:

Archon Hübner, [1822] [2 spp.]
Archon apollinus (Herbst, 1798)
Archon apollinaris (Staudinger, 1892) *

Hypermnestra Ménétriés, 1848 [1 sp.]
Hypermnestra helios (Nickerl, 1846)

Parnassius Latreille, 1804 [47 spp.]

Driopa Korshunov, 1988 [8 spp.]
Parnassius (Driopa) ariadne Lederer, 1853
- clarius Eversmann, 1843 *
Parnassius (Driopa) clodius Ménétriés, 1855
Parnassius (Driopa) eversmanni Ménétriés, 1855
- felderi Bremer, 1861 *
- litoreus Stichel, 1907 *
Parnassius (Driopa) glacialis Butler, 1866 *
- sulphurus Antram, 1924 *
Parnassius (Driopa) mnemosyne (Linnaeus, 1758)
Parnassius (Driopa) nordmanni [Ménétriés], 1850
Parnassius (Driopa) orleans Oberthür, 1890
Parnassius (Driopa) stubbendorfii Ménétriés, 1849
- hoenei Schweitzer, 1912 *

Kailasius Moore, 1902 [5 spp.]
Parnassius (Kailasius) autocrator Avinov, 1913
Parnassius (Kailasius) charltonius Gray, [1853]
Parnassius (Kailasius) imperator Oberthür, 1883
- augustus Fruhstorfer, 1903 *
Parnassius (Kailasius) inopinatus Kotzsch, 1940
Parnassius (Kailasius) loxias Püngeler, 1901

Koramius Moore, 1902 [8 spp.]
Parnassius (Koramius) acdestis Grum-Grshimailo, 1891
- liudongi Huang, 1999 *
Parnassius (Koramius) cardinal Grum-Grshimailo, 1887 *
Parnassius (Koramius) delphius (Eversmann, 1843) *
Parnassius (Koramius) maximinus Staudinger, 1891 *
Parnassius (Koramius) patricius Niepelt, 1911
- hide Koiwaya, 1987 *
- priamus Bryk, 1913 *
Parnassius (Koramius) staudingeri Bang-Haas, 1882 *
- kiritshenkoi Avinov, 1910 *
Parnassius (Koramius) stenosemus Honrath, 1890 *
Parnassius (Koramius) stoliczkanus Felder & Felder, 1865 *
- nandadevinensis Weiss, 1990 *

Parnassius Latreille, 1804 [13 spp.]
Parnassius (Parnassius) actius (Eversmann, 1843)
Parnassius (Parnassius) apollo (Linnaeus, 1758)
Parnassius (Parnassius) apollonius (Eversmann, 1847)
Parnassius (Parnassius) bremeri Bremer, 1864
Parnassius (Parnassius) dongalaicus Tytler, 1926 *
- rikihiroi Kawasaki, 1995 *
Parnassius (Parnassius) epaphus Oberthür, 1879
Parnassius (Parnassius) honrathi Staudinger, 1882
Parnassius (Parnassius) jacquemontii Boisduval, 1836
Parnassius (Parnassius) nomion Fischer De Waldheim, 1823
Parnassius (Parnassius) phoebus (Fabricius, 1793) *
    - ruckbeili Deckert, 1909 *
Parnassius (Parnassius) sacerdos Stichel, 1906 *
Parnassius (Parnassius) smintheus Doubleday, 1847 *
- behrii Edwards, 1870 *
Parnassius (Parnassius) tianschanicus Oberthür, 1879

Sachaia Korshunov, 1988 [6 spp.]
Parnassius (Sachaia) andreji Eisner, 1930 *
Parnassius (Sachaia) arctica (Eisner, 1968) *
- ammosovi Korshunov, 1988 *
Parnassius (Sachaia) boedromius Püngeler, 1901 *
Parnassius (Sachaia) simo Gray, [1853] *
Parnassius (Sachaia) simonius Staudinger, 1889 *
Parnassius (Sachaia) tenedius Eversmann, 1851

Tadumia Moore, 1902 [7 spp.]
Parnassius (Tadumia) acco Gray, [1853] *
- baileyi South, 1913 *
- przewalskii Alpheraky, 1887 *
- rothschildianus Bryk, 1931 *
Parnassius (Tadumia) cephalus Grum-Grshimailo, 1891
- pythia Roth, 1932 *
Parnassius (Tadumia) hardwickii Gray, 1831
Parnassius (Tadumia) hunnyngtoni Avinoff, 1916 *
Parnassius (Tadumia) maharaja Avinoff, 1916 *
- labeyriei Weiss & Michel, 1989 *
- nosei Watanabe, 1990 *
Parnassius (Tadumia) schultei Weiss & Michel, 1989 *
- huberi Paulus, 1999 *
Parnassius (Tadumia) szechenyii Frivaldszky, 1886
- choui Huang & Shi, 1994 *

Luehdorfiini Chapman, 1895 [= Zerynthiini Grote, 1899]

Bhutanitis Atkinson, 1873 [4 spp.]
Bhutanitis lidderdalii Atkinson, 1873
Bhutanitis ludlowi Gabriel, 1942
Bhutanitis mansfieldi (Riley, 1939)
- pulchristriata Saigusa & Lee, 1982 *
Bhutanitis thaidina (Blanchard, 1871)
- nigrilima Chou, 1992 *
- yulongensis Chou, 1992 *

Luehdorfia Crüger, 1878 [4 spp.]
Luehdorfia chinensis Leech, 1893 *
Luehdorfia puziloi (Erschoff, 1872)
Luehdorfia japonica Leech, 1889
Luehdorfia longicaudata Lee, 1982 *
- taibai Chou, 1994 *

Sericinus Westwood, 1851 [1 sp.]
Sericinus montela Gray, 1852

Zerynthia Ochsenheimer, 1816 [7 spp.]

Allancastria Bryk, 1934
Zerynthia (Allancastria) caucasica (Lederer, 1864) *
Zerynthia (Allancastria) cerisy (Godart, [1824])
Zerynthia (Allancastria) cretica (Rebel, 1904) *
Zerynthia (Allancastria) deyrollei (Oberthür, 1869)
Zerynthia (Allancastria) louristana (Le Cerf, 1908) *

Zerynthia Ochsenheimer, 1816
Zerynthia (Zerynthia) polyxena ([Denis & Schiffermüller], 1775)
Zerynthia (Zerynthia) rumina (Linnaeus, 1758)

Papilioninae Latreille, [1802] [485 spp.]

Leptocircini Kirby, 1896   [= Lampropterini Bryk, 1929;[= Graphiini Talbot, 1939] *     [144 spp.]

Eurytides Hübner, [1821] [7 spp.]
Eurytides bellerophon (Dalman, 1823)
Eurytides callias (Rothschild & Jordan, 1906)
Eurytides dolicaon (Cramer, [1775])
Eurytides iphitas Hübner, [1821]
Eurytides orabilis (Butler, 1872)
Eurytides salvini (Bates, 1864)
Eurytides serville (Godart, [1824])
- columbus (Kollar, 1850) *

Graphium Scopoli, 1777      [97 spp.]

Arisbe Hübner, [1819]          [39 spp.]
Graphium (Arisbe) abri Smith & Vane-Wright, 2001
Graphium (Arisbe) adamastor (Boisduval, 1836)
Graphium (Arisbe) agamedes (Westwood, 1842)
Graphium (Arisbe) almansor (Honrath, 1884)
- carchedonius (Karsch, 1895) *
Graphium (Arisbe) angolanus (Goeze, 1779) *
- pylades (Fabricius, 1793) *
Graphium (Arisbe) antheus (Cramer, [1779])
Graphium (Arisbe) auriger (Butler, 1876) *
Graphium (Arisbe) aurivilliusi (Seeldrayers, 1896)
Graphium (Arisbe) biokoensis Gauthier, 1984 *
Graphium (Arisbe) colonna (Ward, 1873)
Graphium (Arisbe) cyrnus (Boisduval, 1836)
Graphium (Arisbe) endochus (Boisduval, 1836)
Graphium (Arisbe) evombar (Boisduval, 1836)
Graphium (Arisbe) fulleri (Grose-Smith, 1883)
- ucalegonides (Staudinger, 1884) *
- weberi (Holland, 1917) *
Graphium (Arisbe) gudenusi (Rebel, 1911)
Graphium (Arisbe) hachei (Dewitz, 1881)
- moebii (Süffert, 1904) *
Graphium (Arisbe) illyris (Hewitson, 1873)
- flavisparsus (Fruhstorfer, 1903) *
Graphium (Arisbe) junodi (Trimen, 1893)
Graphium (Arisbe) kigoma Carcasson, 1964 *
Graphium (Arisbe) kirbyi (Hewitson, 1872)
Graphium (Arisbe) latreillianus (Godart, [1819])
Graphium (Arisbe) leonidas (Fabricius, 1793)
- pelopidas (Oberthür, 1879) *
Graphium (Arisbe) levassori (Oberthür, 1886)
Graphium (Arisbe) liponesco (Süffert, 1904) *
- boolae (Strand, 1909) *
Graphium (Arisbe) morania (Angas, 1849)
Graphium (Arisbe) olbrechtsi (Berger, 1950) *
Graphium (Arisbe) philonoe (Ward, 1873)
Graphium (Arisbe) poggianus (Honrath, 1884)
Graphium (Arisbe) policenes (Cramer, [1775])
Graphium (Arisbe) policenoides (Holland, 1892) *
- nigrescens (Eimer, 1889) *
Graphium (Arisbe) polistratus (Grose-Smith, 1889)
- sisenna (Mabille, 1890) *
Graphium (Arisbe) porthaon (Hewitson, 1865)
Graphium (Arisbe) ridleyanus (White, 1843)
Graphium (Arisbe) schaffgotschi (Niepelt, 1927) *
Graphium (Arisbe) schubotzi (Schultze, 1913) *
- odin (Strand, 1910) *
Graphium (Arisbe) simoni (Aurivillius, 1899)
Graphium (Arisbe) taboranus (Oberthür, 1886)
Graphium (Arisbe) tynderaeus (Fabricius, 1793)
Graphium (Arisbe) ucalegon (Hewitson, 1865)

Graphium Scopoli, 1777 [27 spp.]
Graphium (Graphium) agamemnon (Linnaeus, 1758)
Graphium (Graphium) arycles (Boisduval, 1836)
Graphium (Graphium) bathycles (Zincken, 1831)
Graphium (Graphium) browni (Godman & Salvin, 1879)
Graphium (Graphium) chiron (Wallace, 1865) / chironides (Honrath, 1884)?
Graphium (Graphium) cloanthus Westwood, 1841
- sumatranum (Hagen, 1894) *
Graphium (Graphium) codrus (Cramer, [1777]) *
Graphium (Graphium) doson (Felder & Felder, 1864)
Graphium (Graphium) empedovana (Corbet, 1941) *
Graphium (Graphium) eurypylus (Linnaeus, 1758)
Graphium (Graphium) evemon (Boisduval, 1836)
Graphium (Graphium) gelon Boisduval, 1859
Graphium (Graphium) hicetaon (Mathew, 1886)
Graphium (Graphium) leechi (Rothschild, 1895)
Graphium (Graphium) macfarlanei (Butler, 1877)
Graphium (Graphium) macleayanum (Leach, 1814)
Graphium (Graphium) meeki (Rothschild & Jordan, 1901)
Graphium (Graphium) mendana (Godman & Salvin, 1888)
Graphium (Graphium) meyeri (Hopffer, 1874)
Graphium (Graphium) milon (Felder & Felder, 1864) *
Graphium (Graphium) monticolum (Fruhstorfer, 1897) *
Graphium (Graphium) procles (Grose-Smith, 1887)
Graphium (Graphium) sandawanum Yamamoto, 1977
Graphium (Graphium) sarpedon (Linnaeus, 1758)
Graphium (Graphium) stresemanni Rothschild, 1916 *
- batjanensis Okano, 1984 *
Graphium (Graphium) wallacei (Hewitson, 1858)
Graphium (Graphium) weiskei (Ribbe, 1900) *
- goodenovi (Rothschild, 1916) *
- kosii Müller & Tennent, 1999 *

Paranticopsis Wood-Mason & de Niceville, 1887 [12 spp.]
Graphium (Paranticopsis) delesserti (Guérin-Méneville, 1839)
Graphium (Paranticopsis) deucalion (Boisduval, 1836)
Graphium (Paranticopsis) encelades (Boisduval, 1836)
Graphium (Paranticopsis) idaeoides (Hewitson, 1853)
Graphium (Paranticopsis) macareus (Godart, 1819)
Graphium (Paranticopsis) megaera (Staudinger, 1888)
Graphium (Paranticopsis) megarus (Westwood, 1841)
Graphium (Paranticopsis) phidias (Oberthür, 1896)
Graphium (Paranticopsis) ramaceus (Westwood, 1872)
Graphium (Paranticopsis) stratocles (Felder & Felder, 1861)
Graphium (Paranticopsis) thule (Wallace, 1865)
Graphium (Paranticopsis) xenocles (Doubleday, 1842)

Pathysa Reakirt, [1865] [12 spp.]
Graphium (Pathysa) agetes (Westwood, 1841)
Graphium (Pathysa) androcles (Boisduval, 1836)
Graphium (Pathysa) antiphates (Cramer, [1775])
Graphium (Pathysa) aristeus (Stoll, 1780)
Graphium (Pathysa) decolor (Staudinger, 1888)
Graphium (Pathysa) dorcus (de Haan, 1840)
Graphium (Pathysa) epaminondas (Oberthür, 1879)
Graphium (Pathysa) euphrates (Felder & Felder, 1862)
Graphium (Pathysa) euphratoides (Eimer, 1889) *
Graphium (Pathysa) nomius (Esper, 1798)
Graphium (Pathysa) rhesus (Boisduval, 1836)
Graphium (Pathysa) stratiotes (Grose-Smith, 1897)

Pazala Moore, 1888 [7 spp.]
Graphium (Pazala) alebion (Gray, [1853])
Graphium (Pazala) eurous (Leech, 1893)
Graphium (Pazala) incertus (Bang-Haas, 1927) *
Graphium (Pazala) mandarinus (Oberthür, 1879)
Graphium (Pazala) sichuanica (Koiwaya, 1993) *
Graphium (Pazala) tamerlanus (Oberthür, 1876) *
Graphium (Pazala) timur (Ney, 1911) *
- chungianus (Murayama, 1961) *

Iphiclides Hübner, [1819] [2 spp.]
Iphiclides podalirius (Linnaeus, 1758)
- feisthamelii (Duponchel, 1832) *
Iphiclides podalirinus (Oberthür, 1890)

Lamproptera Gray, 1832 [2 spp.]
Lamproptera curius (Fabricius, 1787)
Lamproptera meges (Zincken, 1831)

Mimoides Brown, 1991 [11 spp.]
Mimoides ariarathes (Esper, 1788)
Mimoides euryleon (Hewitson, [1856])
Mimoides ilus (Fabricius, 1793)
- belesis (Bates, 1864) *
- branchus (Doubleday, 1846) *
Mimoides lysithous (Hübner, [1821])
- eupatorion (Lucas, 1857) *
- harrisianus (Swainson, 1822) *
- oedipus (Felder, 1865) *
- rurik (Eschscholtz, 1821) *
- sebastianus (Oberthür, 1880) *
Mimoides microdamas (Burmeister, 1878)
Mimoides pausanias (Hewitson, 1852)
Mimoides phaon (Boisduval, 1836)
- hipparchus (Staudinger, 1884) *
Mimoides protodamas (Godart, 1819)
Mimoides thymbraeus (Boisduval, 1836)
Mimoides xeniades (Hewitson, 1867) *
- chibcha (Fassl, 1912) *
- harmodius (Doubleday, 1846) *
Mimoides xynias (Hewitson, 1875)
- trapeza (Rothschild & Jordan, 1906) *

Protesilaus Swainson, [1832] [11 spp.]
Protesilaus aguiari (D'Almeida, 1937)
Protesilaus earis (Rothschild & Jordan, 1906) *
Protesilaus glaucolaus (Bates, 1864)
Protesilaus helios (Rothschild & Jordan, 1906)
Protesilaus leucosilaus (Zikán, 1937) *
Protesilaus macrosilaus (Gray, [1853]) *
- penthesilaus (Felder & Felder, 1865) *
Protesilaus molops (Rothschild & Jordan, 1906)
- hetaerius (Rothschild & Jordan, 1906) *
Protesilaus orthosilaus (Weymer, 1899)
Protesilaus protesilaus (Linnaeus, 1758)
- archesilaus (Felder & Felder, 1865) *
- embrikstrandi (D'Almeida, 1936) *
- nigricornis (Staudinger, 1884) *
- pseudosilaus (Zikan, 1937) *
- travassosi (D'Almeida, 1938) *
Protesilaus stenodesmus (Rothschild & Jordan, 1906)
Protesilaus telesilaus (Felder & Felder, 1864)

Protographium Munroe, [1961] [14 spp.]
Protographium agesilaus (Guérin & Percheron, 1835)
- autosilaus (Bates, 1861) *
- neosilaus (Hopffer, 1865) *
- oberthueri (Rothschild & Jordan, 1906) *
Protographium anaxilaus (Felder & Felder, 1865) *
- arcesilaus (Lucas, 1852) *
Protographium asius (Fabricius, 1781)
Protographium calliste (Bates, 1864)
Protographium celadon (Lucas, 1852)
Protographium dioxippus (Hewitson, [1856])
- lacandones (Bates, 1864) *
Protographium epidaus (Doubleday, 1846)
Protographium leosthenes (Doubleday, 1846)
Protographium leucaspis (Godart, 1819)
Protographium marcellinus (Doubleday, [1845])
Protographium marcellus (Cramer, [1777])
Protographium philolaus (Boisduval, 1836)
- oberthueri (Rothschild & Jordan, 1906) *
- xanticles (Bates, 1863) *
Protographium thyastes (Drury, 1782)
- marchandii (Boisduval, 1836) *
Protographium zonaria (Butler, 1869)

Teinopalpini Grote, 1899 [2 spp.]

Teinopalpus Hope, 1843
Teinopalpus aureus Mell, 1923
Teinopalpus imperialis Hope, 1843
- imperiatrix de Nicéville, 1899 *

Troidini Talbot, 1939 [130 spp.]

Atrophaneura Reakirt, [1865] [12 spp.]
Atrophaneura aidoneus (Doubleday, 1845)
Atrophaneura dixoni (Grose-Smith, 1901)
Atrophaneura hageni (Rogenhofer, 1889)
Atrophaneura horishanus (Matsumura, 1910)
- sauteri (Heyne, 1913) *
Atrophaneura kuehni (Honrath, 1886)
Atrophaneura luchti (Roepke, 1935)
Atrophaneura nox (Swainson, 1822)
Atrophaneura priapus (Boisduval, 1836)
Atrophaneura semperi (Felder & Felder, 1861)
Atrophaneura sycorax (Grose-Smith, 1885)
Atrophaneura varuna (White, 1842)
Atrophaneura zaleucus (Hewitson, 1865)

Battus Scopoli, 1777 [12 spp.]
Battus belus (Cramer, [1777])
Battus chalceus (Rothschild & Jordan, 1906) *
- ingenuus (Dyar, 1907) *
Battus crassus (Cramer, [1777])
Battus devilliersii (Godart, 1823)
Battus eracon (Godman & Salvin, 1897)
Battus laodamas (Felder & Felder, 1859)
Battus lycidas (Cramer, [1777])
Battus madyes (Doubleday, 1846)
- philetas (Hewitson, 1869) *
Battus philenor (Linnaues, 1771)
Battus polydamas (Linnaeus, 1758)
- archidamas (Boisduval, 1836) *
- psittacus (Molina, 1782) *
- streckerianus (Honrath, 1884) *
Battus polystictus (Butler, 1874)
Battus zetides Munroe, 1971
- zetes (Westwood, 1847) *

Byasa Moore, 1882 [14 spp.]
Byasa adamsoni (Grose-Smith, 1886)
Byasa alcinous (Klug, 1836)
Byasa crassipes (Oberthür, 1879)
Byasa daemonius (Alpheraky, 1895)
Byasa dasarada (Moore, 1857)
Byasa hedistus (Jordan, 1928) *
Byasa impediens (Seitz, 1907) *
- febanus (Fruhstorfer, 1908) *
Byasa laos (Riley & Godfrey, 1921)
Byasa latreillei (Donovan, 1826)
Byasa mencius (Felder, 1862)
- rhadinus (Jordan, 1928) *
Byasa nevilli (Wood-Mason, 1882)
- stenoptera (Chou & Gu, 1994) *
Byasa plutonius (Oberthür, 1876)
Byasa polla (de Nicéville, 1897)
Byasa polyeuctes (Doubleday, 1842)
- philoxenus (Gray, 1831) *

Cressida Swainson, 1832 [1 sp.]
Cressida cressida (Fabricius, 1775)

Euryades Felder & Felder, 1864 [2 spp.]
Euryades corethrus (Boisduval, 1836)
Euryades duponchelii (Lucas, 1836)

Losaria Moore, [1902] [4 spp.]
Losaria coon (Fabricius, 1793)
Losaria neptunus (Guérin-Méneville, 1840)
Losaria palu (Martin, 1912) *
Losaria rhodifer (Butler, 1876)

Ornithoptera Boisduval, [1832] [12 spp.]
Ornithoptera aesacus (Ney, 1903) *
Ornithoptera alexandrae (Rothschild, 1907)
Ornithoptera chimaera (Rothschild, 1904)
Ornithoptera croesus Wallace, 1859 *
Ornithoptera goliath Oberthür, 1888
Ornithoptera meridionalis (Rothschild, 1897)
Ornithoptera paradisea Staudinger, 1893
Ornithoptera priamus (Linnaeus, 1758)
- akakeae Kobayashi & Koiwaya, 1978 *
- allotei (Rothschild, 1914) *
- euphorion (Gray, [1853]) *
Ornithoptera richmondia (Gray, [1853]) *
Ornithoptera rothschildi Kenrick, 1911
- akakeae Kobayashi & Koiwaya, 1978 *
Ornithoptera tithonus de Haan, 1840
Ornithoptera victoriae (Gray, 1856)
- allotei (Rothschild, 1914) *

Pachliopta Reakirt, [1865] [16 spp.]
Pachliopta adamas (Zincken, 1831) *
Pachliopta antiphus (Fabricius, 1793) *
Pachliopta aristolochiae (Fabricius, 1775) *
Pachliopta atropos (Staudinger, 1888)
Pachliopta hector (Linnaeus, 1758) *
Pachliopta jophon (Gray, [1853])
Pachliopta kotzebuea (Eschscholtz, 1821) *
Pachliopta leytensis Murayama, 1978 *
- buraki Koçak, 1983 *
- phegeus (Hopffer, 1865) *
Pachliopta liris (Godart, 1819)
Pachliopta mariae (Semper, 1874)
Pachliopta oreon (Doherty, 1891)
Pachliopta pandiyana (Moore, 1881)
Pachliopta phlegon (Felder & Felder, 1864)
- annae (Felder & Felder, 1861) *
- strandi (Bryk, 1930) *
Pachliopta polydorus (Linnaeus, 1758)
Pachliopta polyphontes (Boisduval, 1836)
Pachliopta schadenbergi (Semper, 1886)

Parides Hübner, 1819 [34 spp.]
Parides aeneas (Linnaeus, 1758)
Parides agavus (Drury, 1782)
Parides alopius (Godman & Salvin, 1890)
Parides anchises (Linnaeus, 1758)
- drucei (Butler, 1874) *
- nephalion (Godart, 1819) *
Parides ascanius (Cramer, [1775])
Parides bunichus (Hübner, 1821)
- diodorus (Hopffer, 1865) *
- perrhebus (Boisduval, 1836) *
Parides burchellanus (Westwood, 1872)
Parides chabrias (Hewitson, 1852)
- mithras (Grose-Smith, 1902) *
Parides childrenae (Gray, 1832)
Parides cutorina (Staudinger, 1898)
Parides echemon (Hübner, 1813)
Parides erithalion (Boisduval, 1836)
- erlaces (Gray, [1853]) *
- polyzelus (Felder & Felder, 1865) *
Parides eurimedes (Stoll, 1782)
- arcas (Stoll, 1781) *
- timias (Gray, [1853]) *
Parides gundlachianus (Felder & Felder, 1864)
Parides hahneli (Staudinger, 1882)
Parides iphidamas (Fabricius, 1793)
Parides klagesi (Ehrmann, 1904)
Parides lysander (Cramer, [1775])
Parides montezuma (Westwood, 1842)
Parides neophilus (Geyer, 1837)
- schuppi (Röber, 1927) *
Parides orellana (Hewitson, 1852)
Parides panares (Gray, [1853]) *
- lycimenes (Boisduval, 1870) *
Parides panthonus (Cramer, [1780])
- aglaope (Gray, [1853]) *
- castilhoi (D'Almeida, 1967) *
Parides phalaecus (Hewitson, 1869)
Parides phosphorus (Bates, 1861)
Parides photinus (Doubleday, 1844)
Parides pizarro (Staudinger, 1884)
- steinbachi (Rothschild, 1905) *
Parides proneus (Hübner, 1831)
Parides quadratus (Staudinger, 1890)
Parides sesostris (Cramer, [1779])
Parides tros (Fabricius, 1793)
Parides vercingetorix (Oberthür, 1888)
- coelus (Boisduval, 1836) *
Parides vertumnus (Cramer, [1779])
Parides zacynthus (Fabricius, 1793)

Pharmacophagus Haase, 1892 [1 sp.]
Pharmacophagus antenor (Drury, 1773)

Trogonoptera Rippon, [1890] [2 spp.]
Trogonoptera brookiana (Wallace, 1855)
Trogonoptera trojana (Honrath, 1886)

Troides Hübner, [1819] [20 spp.]

Ripponia Haugum & Low, 1975
Troides (Ripponia) hypolitus (Cramer, [1775])

Troides Hübner, [1819]
Troides (Troides) aeacus (Felder & Felder, 1860)
Troides (Troides) amphrysus (Cramer, [1782])
Troides (Troides) andromache (Staudinger, 1892)
Troides (Troides) criton (Felder & Felder, 1860)
Troides (Troides) cuneifera (Oberthür, 1879)
Troides (Troides) darsius (Gray, [1853])
Troides (Troides) haliphron (Boisduval, 1836)
Troides (Troides) helena (Linnaeus, 1758)
Troides (Troides) magellanus (Felder & Felder, 1862)
Troides (Troides) minos (Cramer, [1779])
Troides (Troides) miranda (Butler, 1869)
Troides (Troides) oblongomaculatus (Goeze, 1779)
Troides (Troides) plateni (Staudinger, 1888) *
Troides (Troides) plato Wallace, 1865
Troides (Troides) prattorum (Joicey & Talbot, 1922)
Troides (Troides) rhadamantus (Lucas, 1835)
- dohertyi (Rippon, 1893) *
Troides (Troides) riedeli (Kirsch, 1885)
Troides (Troides) staudingeri (Röber, 1888)
Troides (Troides) vandepolli (Snellen, 1890)

Papilionini Latreille, [1802] [209 spp.]

Chilasa Moore, [1881] [13 spp.]

Agehana Matsumura, 1936
Chilasa (Agehana) elwesi (Leech, 1889)
Chilasa (Agehana) maraho (Shiraki & Sonan, 1934) *

Chilasa Moore, [1881]
Chilasa (Chilasa) agestor (Gray, 1831)
Chilasa (Chilasa) carolinensis Jumalon, 1967
Chilasa (Chilasa) clytia (Linnaeus, 1758)
Chilasa (Chilasa) epycides (Hewitson, 1862)
Chilasa (Chilasa) laglaizei (Depuiset, 1877)
Chilasa (Chilasa) moerneri (Aurivillius, 1919)
Chilasa (Chilasa) osmana Jumalon, 1967
Chilasa (Chilasa) paradoxa (Zincken, 1831)
Chilasa (Chilasa) slateri (Hewitson, 1857)
Chilasa (Chilasa) toboroi (Ribbe, 1907)
Chilasa (Chilasa) veiovis (Hewitson, 1853)

Meandrusa Moore, 1888 [3 spp.]
Meandrusa payeni (Boisduval, 1836)
Meandrusa sciron (Leech, 1890) *
- hercules (Blanchard, 1871) *
Meandrusa lachinus (Fruhstorfer, 1902) *
- gyas (Westwood, 1841) *

Papilio Linnaeus, 1758 [193 spp.]

Achillides Hübner, [1819] [23 spp.]
Papilio (Achillides) arcturus Westwood, 1842
Papilio (Achillides) bianor Cramer, [1777]
- okinawensis Fruhstorfer, 1898 *
- polyctor Boisduval, 1836 *
Papilio (Achillides) blumei Boisduval, 1836
Papilio (Achillides) buddha Westwood, 1872
Papilio (Achillides) chikae Igarashi, 1965
Papilio (Achillides) crino Fabricius, 1792
Papilio (Achillides) daedalus Felder & Felder, 1861
Papilio (Achillides) dialis (Leech, 1893)
- doddsi Janet, 1896 *
Papilio (Achillides) elephenor Doubleday, 1845
Papilio (Achillides) hermeli Nuyda, 1992 *
Papilio (Achillides) hoppo Matsumura, 1907
Papilio (Achillides) karna Felder & Felder, 1864
Papilio (Achillides) krishna Moore, 1857
Papilio (Achillides) lorquinianus Felder & Felder, 1865
Papilio (Achillides) maackii Ménétriés, 1859
Papilio (Achillides) montrouzieri Boisduval, 1859
Papilio (Achillides) neumoegeni Honrath, 1890
Papilio (Achillides) palinurus Fabricius, 1787
Papilio (Achillides) paris Linnaeus, 1758
- hermosanus Rebel, 1906 *
Papilio (Achillides) peranthus Fabricius, 1787
Papilio (Achillides) pericles Wallace, 1865
Papilio (Achillides) syfanius Oberthür, 1886 *
Papilio (Achillides) ulysses Linnaeus, 1758

Eleppone Hancock, 1979 [1 sp.]
Papilio (Eleppone) anactus Macleay, 1826

Druryia Aurivillius, 1881 [35 spp.]
Papilio (Druryia) andronicus Ward, 1871
Papilio (Druryia) antimachus Drury, 1782
Papilio (Druryia) arnoldiana Vane-Wright, 1995 *
- arnoldi Poulton, 1926 *
Papilio (Druryia) charopus Westwood, [1843]
Papilio (Druryia) chitondensis Bivar de Sousa & Fernandes, 1966 *
Papilio (Druryia) chrapkowskii Süffert, 1904 *
Papilio (Druryia) chrapkowskoides Storace, 1952 *
- bromius Doubleday, 1845 *
- furvus Joicey & Talbot, 1926 *
- nerminae Koçak, 1983 *
Papilio (Druryia) cynorta Fabricius, 1793
Papilio (Druryia) cyproeofila Butler, 1868 *
- [+zenobius Godart, 1819+] *
Papilio (Druryia) desmondi van Someren, 1939
- brontes Godman, 1885 *
Papilio (Druryia) echerioides Trimen, 1868
- zoroastres Druce, 1878 *
Papilio (Druryia) epiphorbas Boisduval, 1833
Papilio (Druryia) fernandus Fruhstorfer, 1903 *
- praecyola Süffert, 1904 *
Papilio (Druryia) filaprae Süffert, 1904 *
Papilio (Druryia) fuelleborni Karsch, 1900
- sjoestedti Aurivillius, 1908 *
Papilio (Druryia) gallienus Distant, 1879
Papilio (Druryia) hornimani Distant, 1879
Papilio (Druryia) interjectana Vane-Wright, 1995 *
- interjecta van Someren, 1960 *
Papilio (Druryia) jacksoni Sharpe, 1891
Papilio (Druryia) mackinnoni Sharpe, 1891
Papilio (Druryia) maesseni Berger, 1974
Papilio (Druryia) manlius Fabricius, 1798
Papilio (Druryia) mechowi Dewitz, 1881
Papilio (Druryia) mechowianus Dewitz, 1885
Papilio (Druryia) microps Storace, 1952 *
- aethiops Rothschild & Jordan, 1905 *
- aethiopsis Hancock, 1983 *
Papilio (Druryia) nireus Linnaues, 1758
- aristophontes Oberthür, 1897 *
- wilsoni Rothschild, 1926 *
Papilio (Druryia) oribazus Boisduval, 1836
Papilio (Druryia) phorbanta Linnaeus, 1771
Papilio (Druryia) plagiatus Aurivillius, 1898
Papilio (Druryia) rex Oberthür, 1886
Papilio (Druryia) sosia Rothschild & Jordan, 1903
Papilio (Druryia) thuraui Karsch, 1900
Papilio (Druryia) ufipa Carcasson, 1961 *
Papilio (Druryia) zalmoxis Hewitson, 1864
Papilio (Druryia) zenobia Fabricius, 1775

Heraclides Hübner, [1819] [29 spp.]
Papilio (Heraclides) anchisiades Esper, 1788
- matusiki (Johnson & Rozycki, 1986) *
Papilio (Heraclides) andraemon Hübner, 1832
Papilio (Heraclides) androgeus Cramer, [1775]
Papilio (Heraclides) aristodemus Esper, 1794
- bjorndalae Clench, 1979 *
Papilio (Heraclides) aristor Godart, 1819
Papilio (Heraclides) astyalus Godart, 1819
- lycophron Hübner, 1823 *
Papilio (Heraclides) caiguanabus Poey, 1852
Papilio (Heraclides) chiansiades Westwood, 1872
- dospassosi Rütimeyer, 1969 *
- maroni Moreau, 1923 *
Papilio (Heraclides) cresphontes Cramer, [1777]
Papilio (Heraclides) epenetus Hewitson, 1861
Papilio (Heraclides) erostratus Westwood, 1847
- erostratinus Vazquez, 1947 *
Papilio (Heraclides) garleppi Staudinger, 1892
Papilio (Heraclides) hectorides Esper, 1794
Papilio (Heraclides) himeros Hopffer, 1865
- tasso Staudinger, 1884 *
Papilio (Heraclides) homothoas Rothschild & Jordan, 1906
Papilio (Heraclides) hyppason Cramer, [1775]
Papilio (Heraclides) isidorus Doubleday, 1846
- rhodostictus Butler & Druce, 1874 *
Papilio (Heraclides) lamarchei Staudinger, 1892
Papilio (Heraclides) machaonides Esper, 1796
Papilio (Heraclides) melonius Rothschild & Jordan, 1906 *
Papilio (Heraclides) ornythion Boisduval, 1836
Papilio (Heraclides) oxynius (Geyer, 1827)
Papilio (Heraclides) paeon Boisduval, 1836
Papilio (Heraclides) pelaus Fabricius, 1775
[Papilio (Heraclides) peleides Esper, 1793] *
Papilio (Heraclides) pharnaces Doubleday, 1846
Papilio (Heraclides) rogeri Boisduval, 1836 *
Papilio (Heraclides) thersites Fabricius, 1775
Papilio (Heraclides) thoas Linnaeus, 1771
- cinyras Ménétriés, 1857 *
Papilio (Heraclides) torquatus Cramer, [1777]
- tasso Staudinger, 1884 *

Menelaides Hübner, [1819] [56 spp.]
Papilio (Menelaides) acheron Grose-Smith, 1887
Papilio (Menelaides) aegeus Donovan, 1805
- oberon Grose-Smith, 1897 *
Papilio (Menelaides) albinus Wallace, 1865
Papilio (Menelaides) alcmenor Felder & Felder, 1864
Papilio (Menelaides) alphenor Cramer, [1776]
Papilio (Menelaides) ambrax Boisduval, 1832
Papilio (Menelaides) amynthor Boisduval, 1859
Papilio (Menelaides) antonio Hewitson, 1875
Papilio (Menelaides) ascalaphus Boisduval, 1836
Papilio (Menelaides) bootes Westwood, 1842
Papilio (Menelaides) bridgei Mathew, 1886 *
Papilio (Menelaides) canopus Westwood, 1842
Papilio (Menelaides) castor Westwood, 1842
Papilio (Menelaides) deiphobus Linnaeus, 1758
Papilio (Menelaides) demetrius Cramer, [1782]
Papilio (Menelaides) demolion Cramer, [1776]
Papilio (Menelaides) diophantus Grose-Smith, 1882
Papilio (Menelaides) dravidarum Wood-Mason, 1880
Papilio (Menelaides) erskinei Mathew, 1886 *
Papilio (Menelaides) euchenor Guérin-Méneville, 1829
Papilio (Menelaides) forbesi Grose-Smith, 1883
Papilio (Menelaides) fuscus Goeze, 1779
- heringi Niepelt, 1924 *
Papilio (Menelaides) gambrisius Cramer, [1777]
Papilio (Menelaides) gigon Felder & Felder, 1864
Papilio (Menelaides) godeffroyi Semper, 1866
Papilio (Menelaides) helenus Linnaeus, 1758
- biseriatus Rothschild, 1895 *
Papilio (Menelaides) hipponous Felder & Felder, 1862
Papilio (Menelaides) hypsicles Hewitson, 1868
Papilio (Menelaides) hystaspes Felder & Felder, 1862
Papilio (Menelaides) inopinatus Butler, 1883
Papilio (Menelaides) iswara White, 1842
Papilio (Menelaides) iswaroides Fruhstorfer, 1897
Papilio (Menelaides) janaka Moore, 1857
Papilio (Menelaides) jordani Fruhstorfer, 1902
Papilio (Menelaides) lampsacus Boisduval, 1836
Papilio (Menelaides) liomedon Moore, 1874
Papilio (Menelaides) lowii Druce, 1873
Papilio (Menelaides) macilentus Janson, 1877
Papilio (Menelaides) mahadeva Moore, 1878
Papilio (Menelaides) mayo Atkinson, 1873
Papilio (Menelaides) memnon Linnaeus, 1758
Papilio (Menelaides) nephelus Boisduval, 1836
- chaon Westwood, 1845 *
- nubilus Staudinger, 1895 *
Papilio (Menelaides) noblei de Nicéville, 1889
Papilio (Menelaides) oenomaus Godart, 1879
Papilio (Menelaides) phestus Guérin-Méneville, 1830
Papilio (Menelaides) pitmani Elwes & de Nicéville, 1886
Papilio (Menelaides) polymnestor Cramer, [1775]
Papilio (Menelaides) polytes Linnaeus, 1758
- alcindor Oberthür, 1879 *
- nubilus Staudinger, 1895 *
- sakontala Hewitson, 1864 *
- walkeri Janson, 1879 *
Papilio (Menelaides) protenor Cramer, [1775]
Papilio (Menelaides) rumanzovia Eschscholtz, 1821
- luzviae Schröder & Treadaway, 1991 *
Papilio (Menelaides) sataspes Felder & Felder, 1864
Papilio (Menelaides) schmeltzi Herrich-Schäffer, 1869
Papilio (Menelaides) thaiwanus Rothschild, 1898
Papilio (Menelaides) tydeus Felder & Felder, 1860
- heringi Niepelt, 1924 *
Papilio (Menelaides) weymeri Niepelt, 1914
Papilio (Menelaides) woodfordi Godman & Salvin, 1888 *
- ptolychus Godman & Salvin, 1888 *

Papilio Linnaeus, 1758 [8 spp.]
Papilio (Papilio) alexanor Esper, 1800
Papilio (Papilio) brevicauda Saunders, 1869 *
Papilio (Papilio) hospiton Géné, 1839
Papilio (Papilio) indra Reakirt, 1866
Papilio (Papilio) machaon Linnaeus, 1758
- bairdii Edwards, 1869 *
- brevicauda Saunders, 1869 *
- hippocrates Felder & Felder, 1864 *
- joanae Heitzman, 1974 *
- oregonius Edwards, 1876 *
- sikkimensis Moore, 1884 *
Papilio (Papilio) polyxenes Fabricius, 1775
- coloro Wright, 1905 *
- kahli Chermock & Chermock, 1937 *
- rudkini Comstock, 1935 *
Papilio (Papilio) saharae Oberthür, 1879 *
Papilio (Papilio) zelicaon Lucas, 1852 *
- gothica Remington, 1968 *
- nitra Edwards, 1883 *

Princeps Hübner, [1807] [19 spp.]
Papilio (Princeps) constantinus Ward, 1871
Papilio (Princeps) dardanus Brown, 1776
Papilio (Princeps) delalandei Godart, [1824]
Papilio (Princeps) demodocus Esper, 1798
Papilio (Princeps) demoleus Linnaeus, 1758
Papilio (Princeps) erithonioides Grose-Smith, 1891
Papilio (Princeps) euphranor Trimen, 1868
Papilio (Princeps) grosesmithi Rothschild, 1926
Papilio (Princeps) horribilis Butler, 1874
Papilio (Princeps) leucotaenia Rothschild, 1908
Papilio (Princeps) lormieri Distant, 1874
Papilio (Princeps) mangoura Hewitson, 1875
Papilio (Princeps) menestheus Drury, [1773]
Papilio (Princeps) morondavana Grose-Smith, 1891
Papilio (Princeps) nobilis Rogenhofer, 1891
Papilio (Princeps) ophidicephalus Oberthür, 1878
Papilio (Princeps) pelodurus Butler, 1896
Papilio (Princeps) phorcas Cramer, [1775]

Pterourus Scopoli, 1777 [20 spp.]
Papilio (Pterourus) birchallii Hewitson, 1863
Papilio (Pterourus) cacicus Lucas, 1852
Papilio (Pterourus) canadensis Rothschild & Jordan, 1906 *
Papilio (Pterourus) esperanza Beutelspacher, 1975 *
Papilio (Pterourus) eurymedon Lucas, 1852
Papilio (Pterourus) euterpinus Godman & Salvin, 1868
Papilio (Pterourus) garamas Geyer, 1829
- abderus Hopffer, 1856 *
Papilio (Pterourus) glaucus Linnaeus, 1758
- alexiares Hopffer, 1865 *
Papilio (Pterourus) hellanichus Hewitson, 1868
Papilio (Pterourus) homerus Fabricius, 1793
Papilio (Pterourus) menatius Hübner, 1819
- aristeus Cramer, [1782] *
- cleotas Gray, 1832 *
- phaeton Lucas, 1859 *
- syndemis Jordan, 1907 *
- victorinus Doubleday, 1844 *
Papilio (Pterourus) multicaudatus Kirby, 1884
Papilio (Pterourus) palamedes Drury, 1773
Papilio (Pterourus) pilumnus Boisduval, 1836
Papilio (Pterourus) rutulus Lucas, 1852 *
Papilio (Pterourus) scamander Boisduval, 1836
Papilio (Pterourus) troilus Linnaeus, 1758
Papilio (Pterourus) warscewiczii Hopffer, 1865
Papilio (Pterourus) xanthopleura Godman & Salvin, 1868
Papilio (Pterourus) zagreus Doubleday, 1847
- ascolius Felder & Felder, 1864 *
- bachus Felder & Felder, 1865 *
- neyi Niepelt, 1901 *

Sinoprinceps Hancock, 1983 [2 spp.]
Papilio (Sinoprinceps) benguetanus Joicey & Talbot, 1923 *
Papilio (Sinoprinceps) xuthus Linnaeus, 1767

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divline.GIF (322 Byte)

lepibull.gif (1046 Byte)Comments (listed alphabetically by name of taxon):

abderus [Papilio (Pterourus)]: generally seen as conspecific with P. garamas (e.g., Bryk 1930, D'Abrera 1981, D'Almeida 1966, Tyler et al. 1994), but sometimes also treated as a distinct species (Collins & Morris 1985:87, Hancock 1983, Llorente-Bousquets et al. 1997).

acco [Parnassius (Tadumia)]: is treated here to include baileyi South, przewalskii Alpheraky, and all related taxa some of which at times have been regarded as distinct species (e.g., Bryk 1935, Chou 1994, Collins & Morris 1985, Munroe 1961); the view of a single species has been accepted by most recent authors based on the allopatric occurence of the different taxa concerned (e.g., Ackery 1975, Eisner 1976, Hancock 1983, Inaoka & Sugisawa 1997, Rose 2000, Shinkai 1997, Sorimachi 1994a, Sorimachi 1995).

adamas [Pachliopta]: previously regarded as conspecific with P. aristolochiae (e.g., Fujioka et al. 1997, Tsukada & Nishiyama 1982), but recently accepted as a separate species by Page & Treadaway (1995).

aesacus [Ornithoptera]: generally regarded as a separate species (e.g, Collins & Morris 1985:83, Hancock 1983, Hancock & Orr 1997, Munroe 1961, Otani & Kimura 1998, von Knötgen 1997), but also considered as conspecific with O. priamus by Parsons (1996).

aethiops [Papilio (Druryia) microps]: formerly in general use as the species name (e.g., Carcasson 1975, D'Abrera 1980, Munroe 1961), but invalid as a junior primary homonym (Ackery et al. 1995, Hancock 1983); aethiopsis Hancock, 1983 has been proposed as an objective replacement name (see below), but microps Storace, 1952 is also seen as a conspecific taxon and hence available as species name (Ackery et al. 1995:152).

aethiopsis [Papilio (Druryia) microps]: proposed as an objective replacement name for P. aethiops Rothschild & Jordan, 1905, which is invalid as a junior primary homonym (Hancock 1983:38); at species level, however, microps Storace, 1952 is already available as a valid name (see below).

aglaope [Parides panthonus]: previously treated as a separate species (e.g., Collins & Morris 1985:70, D'Almeida 1966, and Hancock 1983:47), but recently regarded as conspecific with P. panthonus by Lamas (pers.com.), and Tyler et al. (1994:28).

akakeae [Ornithoptera priamus/rothschildi]: originally described as a separate species, but now regarded as an interspecific hybrid between O. priamus and O. rothschildi (Otani & Kimura 1998:101).

alcindor [Papilio (Menelaides) polytes]: generally held to be conspecific with P. polytes (e.g., Bryk 1930, D'Abrera 1982, Tsukada & Nishiyama 1982) but recently elevated to species rank by Fujioka et al. (1997:228).

alexiares [Papilio (Pterourus) glaucus]: previously regarded as a separate species (e.g., Collins & Morris 1985, D'Abrera 1981, D'Almeida 1966:132, Hagen & Scriber 1995, Hancock 1983, Munroe 1961), but recently seen as conspecific with P. glaucus (Llorente-Bousquets et al. 1997, Tyler et al. 1994).

allotei [Ornithoptera priamus/victoriae]: originally described and subsequently often listed as a separate species (e.g., Munroe 1961), it is now recognized as an interspecific hybrid between O. priamus and O. victoriae (Collins & Morris 1985:82, Haugum & low 1978.1985, Otani & Kimura 1998:99, Parsons 1999:225).

ammosovi [Parnassius (Sachaia) arcticus]: originally described as a separate species but subsequently found to be a junior synonym of arcticus Eisner, which first had been misplaced under P. simo (see Häuser 1993, Tuzov et al. 1997).

anaxilaus [Protographium]: the species was formerly known under the name of arcesilaus Lucas which, however, is invalid as a junior primary homonym (see below).

andreji [Parnassius (Sachaia)]: long treated as conspecific with P. simo (e.g., Ackery 1975, Bryk 1935, Collins & Morris 1985, Eisner 1976, and Munroe 1961), but recently accepted as a separate species by Chou (1994), Sorimachi (1995:72), and Weiss (1991), which has also been found sympatrically with P. simo (Koiwaya 1995).

angolanus [Graphium (Arisbe)]: in former times the species was known under the name of pylades Fabricius, which is invalid as a junior primary homonym (see below).

annae [Pachliopta phlegon]: previously in use as the species name (e.g., D'Abrera 1982), but invalid as a junior primary homonym; strandi Bryk, 1930 has been proposed as an available replacement name (see below).

antiphus [Pachliopta]: until recently regarded as conspecific with P. aristolochiae (e.g., Fujioka et al. 1997, Tsukada & Nishiyama 1982), but now recognized as a separate species by Page & Treadaway (1995).

apollinaris [Archon]: for a long time treated as a subspecies of A. apollinus (e.g., Ackery 1975, Bryk 1934, D'Abrera 1990, Igarashi 1979, Collins & Morris 1985, Hancock 1983), but now generally accepted as a distinct species based on the sympatric occurence with A. apollinus in part of its range (Carbonell 1991, de Freina 1985, Hesselbarth et al. 1995).

arcas [Parides eurimedes]: the species has long been known under this name which, however, is invalid as a junior primary homonym; eurimedes Stoll is available as a subjective replacement name (Tyler et al. 1994).

arcesilaus [Protographium anaxilaus]: previously the species has been known under this name (e.g., D'Abrera 1981, D'Almeida 1966, Munroe 1961) which, however, is invalid as a junior primary homonym (Hancock 1983).

archesilaus [Protesilaus protesilaus]: listed as a separate species by D'Almeida (1966:249), but now generally regarded as conspecific with P. protesilaus (e.g., Brown 1991, Hancock 1983:20, Munroe 1961, Tyler et al. 1994:30).

archidamas [Battus polydamas]: previously mostly treated as a separate species (e.g., Collins & Morris 1985:70, D'Almeida 1966, Hancock 1983:47, Möhn 1999, Racheli & Pariset 1992), but recently regarded as conspecific with B. polydamas by Lamas (pers. com.), and Tyler et al. (1994:28); the oldest available name for this taxon is probably Papilio psittacus Molina, 1782 (see below), which hitherto has been interpreted as representing a species of Castniidae (Racheli & Pariset, 1992:53).

arcticus [Parnassius (Sachaia)]: originally described as a Siberian subspecies of P. simo, a species which does not occur in Siberia, and subsequently placed as conspecific with P. tenedius (Eisner 1969); recognized as a separate species by Mrácek (1989), and recently accepted as such (e.g., Korshunov & Gorbunov 1995:54, Sorimachi 1995, Tuzov et al. 1997:142, and Weiss 1991); includes ammosovi Korshunov as a junior synonym (see above).

aristeus [Papilio (Pterourus) menatius]: previously in use as the species name (e.g., Bryk 1930, D'Abrera 1981) but invalid as a junior primary homonym (Hancock 1983:32).

aristolochiae [Pachliopta]: for taxa formerly included under this species, see also under P. adamas and P. antiphus (see above).

aristophontes [Papilio (Princeps) nireus]: originally described and often regarded as a separate species (e.g., Collins & Morris 1985:105, D'Abrera 1980, D'Abrera 1997), but recently treated as conspecific with P. nireus with which it is allopatric (Ackery et al. 1995:153, Hancock 1984b).

arnoldi [Papilio (Druryia) arnoldiana]: this name is invalid as a junior primary homonym, and arnolidana Vane-Wright has been proposed as an objective replacement name for this taxon (see below).

arnoldiana [Papilio (Druryia)]: originally described as a subspecies of P. cynorta and treated as such by most authors (e.g., Carcasson 1975, Collins & Morris 1985, D'Abrera 1980), but recently regarded as a separate species by Ackery et al. (1995:139), and Hancock (1989, 1993); the taxon was previously known under the name arnoldi Poulton, which, however, is invalid as a junior primary homonym (see above).

ascolius [Papilio (Pterourus) zagreus]: previously regarded as a separate species (e.g., Collins & Morris 1985:85, D'Almeida 1966:147, De Vries 1987, Hancock 1983, Munroe 1961), but recently treated as conspecific with P. zagreus (Racheli & Pariset 1993, Tyler et al. 1994).

augustus [Parnassius (Kailasius) imperator]: recently proposed as a separate species from P. imperator by Sugisawa & Kawasaki (1997) based on differences in male genitalia and wing pattern; regarded as conspecific with P. imperator by all previous authors, e.g., Ackery (1975), Bryk (1935), Collins & Morris (1985), Ohya (1990), Sorimachi (1995:166), and Weiss (1991); this view is accepted here as no truely sympatric occurence of the two taxa has yet been demonstrated.

auriger [Graphium (Arisbe)]: several taxa in the past sometimes treated as conspecific with G. auriger are now regarded as distinct species; see also under G. olbrechtsi , and G. schubotzi.

autosilaus [Protographium agesilaus]: listed as a separate species by D'Almeida (1966:256), but generally regarded as conspecific with P. agesilaus (Brown 1991, Collins & Morris 1985, D'Abrera 1981, Hancock 1983, Tyler et al. 1994:30).

bachus [Papilio (Pterourus) zagreus]: previously regarded as a separate species (e.g., Collins & Morris 1985:85, D'Almeida 1966:154, Hancock 1983, Munroe 1961, Racheli & Pariset 1993), but recently treated as conspecific with P. zagreus (Tyler et al. 1994).

baileyi [Parnassius (Tadumia) acco]: originally described as a subspecies of P. acco, later placed with rothschildianus or przewalskii (e.g., Bryk 1935), and subsequently also treated as a separate species (e.g., Weiss 1992); more recently, however, regarded by most authors again as conspecific with P. acco (Ackery 1975, Eisner 1976, Inaoka & Sugisawa 1997, Shinkai 1997, Sorimachi 1994a, Sorimachi 1995, Weiss 1992).

bairdii [Papilio (Papilio) machaon]: previously often regarded as a separate species (e.g., Collins & Morris 1985:95, D'Almeida 1966:155, Hancock 1983, Miller & Brown 1981, Munroe 1961), but now generally treated as conspecific with P. machaon (D'Abrera 1990, Fujioka et al. 1997, Scott 1986, Sperling 1987, Tyler et al. 1994).

batjanensis [Graphium (Graphium) stresemanni]: described as a distinct species in the G. weiskei group, and recently accepted as a separate species by Hanafusa (1998), and Müller & Tennent (1999); since batjanensis appears to be allopatric to G. stresemanni, it is retained here provisionally under that species; it has also been suggested to be conspecific with G. weiskei (Parsons 1999:245).

beehri [Parnassius (Parnassius) smintheus]: as the other North American taxa in this group, beehri was in the past generally placed as a subspecies of P. phoebus (e.g., Bryk 1935, Eisner 1976, Ferris 1976, Tyler et al. 1994); following the separation of nearctic taxa at species level under P. smintheus (see below), it consequently has now to be placed with the latter taxon; in a recent study, species rank has been accordet to beehri based on differences in egg morphology (Shepard & Manley 1998).

belesis [Mimoides ilus]: formerly treated as a separate species (e.g., Collins & Morris 1985:49, D'Almeida 1966:257, Hancock 1983, and Munroe 1961), but recently regarded as conspecific with M. branchus by Brown (1991), and with M. ilus by Tyler et al. (1994:31).

benguetanus [Papilio (Sinoprinceps)]: sometimes regarded as conspecific with P. xuthus (e.g., Fujioka et al. 1997:220; Munroe 1961), but mostly accepted as a separate species (Collins & Morris 1985, Hancock 1983, Treadaway 1995, Tsukada & Nishiyama 1982).

biokoensis [Graphium (Arisbe)]: originally described as a subspecies of G. policenes and subsequently treated as such (Ackery et al. 1995:165) or considered conspecific with G. liponesco (Larsen 1994), but recently accepted as a separate species restricted largely to Central Africa by Smith & Vane-Wright (2001).

biseriatus [Papilio (Menelaides) helenus]: generally treated as conspecific with P. helenus (e.g., Bryk 1930, Fujioka et al. 1997, Tsukada & Nishiyama 1982), but regarded as a distinct species by Collins & Morris (1985:98) following Hancock (1983:37).

bjorndalae [Papilio (Heraclides) aristodemus]: originally described and subsequently treated as a subspecies of P. aristodemus, but listed as a distinct species by D'Abrera (1990:44).

boedromius [Parnassius (Sachaia)]: originally described as a separate species, but later mostly regarded as conspecific with P. simo (e.g, Ackery 1975, Bryk 1935, Collins & Morris 1985, D'Abrera 1990, Eisner 1976, Munroe 1961, Verity 1905-1911); reinstated as a separate species by Kreuzberg (1985), and recently accepted as such by most authors (e.g., Häuser 1993, Lukhtanov & Lukhtanov 1994, Sorimachi 1995, Tuzov et al. 1997, and Weiss 1991).

boolae [Graphium (Arisbe) policenoides]: originally described and subsequently listed as a separate species by Munroe (1961), it has been regarded as conspecific with G. policenoides (Ackery et al. 1995), but is now established as conspecific with G. liponesco (Hancock 1986, Larsen 1994, Smith & Vane-Wright 2001).

branchus [Mimoides ilus]: in the past generally treated as a separate species (e.g., Brown 1991:401, Collins & Morris 1985:49, D'Abrera 1981, D'Almeida 1966:258, De Vries 1987, Hancock 1983, and Munroe 1961), but recently regarded as conspecific with M. ilus by Lamas (pers.com.), Llorente-Bousquets et al. (1997), and Tyler et al. (1994:31).

brevicauda [Papilio (Papilio)]: usually treated as a separate species (e.g., Collins & Morris 1985:94, D'Abrera 1990, Hancock 1983, Layberry et al. 1998, Miller & Brown 1981, Munroe 1961, Scott 1986), but has also been regarded as conspecific with P. machaon (Fujioka et al. 1997, Sperling & Harrison 1994, Tyler et al. 1994).

bridgei [Papilio (Menelaides)]: this species has sometimes been regarded to also include P. erskinei (see below) which recently has been accepted again as a distinct species (Tennent 1999); the two taxa were introduced in the same paper, and this name has been given precedence over erskinei Mathew, 1886 as the species name by Parsons (1999) despite the fact that the latter name had already been given priority by Racheli (1980) acting as first reviser (see Tennnet 1999:215).

bromius [Papilio (Druryia) chrapkowskoides]: a name in general use for this species (e.g., Berger 1981, Carcasson 1975, Collins & Morris 1985, D'Abrera 1980, D'Abrera 1997, Hancock 1984b, Larsen 1991, Munroe 1961) which has recently been recognised to be invalid as a junior primary homonym (Koçak 1983); it has been suggested that a case will be made to the ICZN for the conservation of the long established name Papilio bromius Doubleday, 1845 (Ackery et al. 1995:140).

brontes [Papilio (Druryia) desmondi]: previously in use as the species name (e.g., Carcasson 1975, Munroe 1961), but invalid as a junior primary homonym (Ackery et al. 1995, Hancock 1984b).

buraki [Pachliopta leytensis]: buraki Koçak, 1983 has been proposed as a replacement name for Papilio phegeus Hopffer, 1885, which is invalid as a junior primary homonym (see below); leytensis Murayama, 1978, however, is available as a subjective conspecific name (see below).

canadensis [Papilio (Pterourus) glaucus]: generally placed as a subspecies of P. glaucus (e.g., Collins & Morris 1985, D'Abrera 1990, D'Almeida 1966, Miller & Brown 1981, Scott 1986, Tyler et al. 1994), but recently accepted as a separate species (Caterino & Sperling 1999, Hagen et al. 1991, Hagen & Scriber 1995, Layberry et al. 1998).

carchedonius [Graphium (Arisbe) almansor]: originally described and subsequently treated as a distinct species (e.g., Hancock 1983), it has been regarded as conspecific with G. adamastor (Ackery et al. 1995), but is recently treated as conspecific with G. almansor (D'Abrera 1997, Larsen pers. com., Smith & Vane-Wright 2001).

cardinal [Parnassius (Koramius)]: for a long time regarded as a subspecies of P. delphius (e.g., Ackery 1975, Bryk 1935, Eisner 1976, Collins & Morris 1985, D'Abrera 1990, Munroe 1961), but later recognized as a distinct species which partly coexists with other members of the P. delphius group (Kreuzberg 1985, Stshetkin 1979), a view which lately has been generally accepted (e.g., Häuser 1993, Sorimachi 1995, Tuzov et al. 1997, Weiss 1992).

castilhoi [Parides panthonus]: originally described as a separate species and subsequently treated as such by Collins & Morris (1985:70) and Hancock (1983:47), but now seen as conspecific with P. panthonus (Lamas pers.com., Tyler et al. 1994:28).

caucasica [Zerynthia (Allancastria)]: originally placed and long regarded as conspecific with Z. cerisy (e.g., Ackery 1975, Bernardi 1970, Bryk 1934), but now generally accepted as a separate species which coexists in part of its range with Z. cerisy (e.g., Collins & Morris 1985, Hancock 1983, Häuser 1993, Hesselbarth et al. 1995, Kuhna 1977, Nekrutenko 1990, and Tuzov et al. 1997:148).

chalceus [Battus]: previously treated as conspecific with B. belus (e.g., Collins & Morris 1985:66, D'Almeida 1966, Hancock 1983, Munroe 1961), but now generally accepted as a separate species (Möhn 1999, Llorente-Bousquets et al. 1997, Racheli & Pariset 1992 [all as 'ingenuus'], and Tyler et al. 1994:28); however, the proper identity of the taxon chalceus Rothschild & Jordan, 1906 appears somewhat questionable with regard to the type locality, and according to Racheli & Pariset (1992:136) the type specimens might have been mislabeled and actually represent an Andean subspecies of B. belus in which case the valid species name would then be B. ingenuus (see below); until further clarification, the species is here retained under B. chalceus thus following Tyler et al. (1994).

chaon [Papilio (Menelaides) nephelus]: listed as a separate species by Munroe (1961) and Talbot (1939), but now generally regarded as conspecific with P. nephelus (Collins & Morris 1985:100, D'Abrera 1982, Hancock 1983, Tsukada & Nishiyama 1982).

carchedonius [Graphium (Arisbe) aalmansor]: originally described and subsequently sometimes treated as a distinct species (e.g., Hancock 1983), but mostly regarded as conspecific with G. adamastor (Ackery et al. 1995, Hancock 1985); recently, however, seen as conspecific with G. almansor (D'Abrera 1997, Smith & Vane-Wright pers.com.).

chibcha [Mimoides xeniades]: originally described and subsequently listed as a separate species by D'Abrera (1981), D'Almeida (1966), and Munroe (1961), but now generally regarded as conspecific with M. xenidaes (Brown 1991, Hancock 1983, Tyler et al. 1994).

chinensis [Luehdorfia]: originally described and in the past often treated as conspecific with L. japonica (e.g., Ackery 1975, D'Abrera 1990, Rothschild 1918) or with L. puziloi (e.g., Bryk 1934, Eisner 1974), but now recognized as a separate species (Chou 1994, Collins & Morris 1985, Fujioka et al. 1997, Hancock 1983, Igarashi & Fukuda 1997, Kato 1998, Nosé 1990, Watanabe 1996).

chitondensis [Papilio (Druryia)]: originally described as a subspecies of P. chrapkowskoides and subsequently treated as such (Hancock 1984b), but recently accepted as a separate species (Ackery et al. 1995:140).

choui [Parnassius (Tadumia) szechenyii]: recently described as a separate species related to P. szechenyii; as judged from the illustrations of the original description, however, it seems unlikely to be specifically distinct.

chrapkowskii [Papilio (Druryia)]: originally described and now again mostly treated as a separate species (Ackery et al. 1995, Collins & Morris 1985, D'Abrera 1997, Hancock 1983, Hancock 1993, Kielland 1990), but sometimes in the past also regarded as conspecific with P. chrapkowskoides (e.g., Carcasson 1975, D'Abrera 1980, Larsen 1991).

chrapkowskoides [Papilio (Druryia)]: this species has long been know under the name of bromius Doubleday, 1845 (e.g., Collins & Morris 1985, D'Abrera 1980, Hancock 1984b, Munroe 1961), which however is invalid as a junior primary homonym; chrapkowskoides Storace, 1952 is available as a subjective replacement name at the species level (Hancock 1993) and an objective replacement name has been proposed by Koçak (1983), but it has been suggested that a case will be made to the ICZN for the conservation of the long established name Papilio bromius Doubleday, 1845 (Ackery et al. 1995:140).

chungianus [Graphium (Pazala) timur]: treated as a separate species by Shirozu (1992), but otherwise seen as conspecific with G. alebion (D'Abrera 1982:108) or with G. timur (Koiwaya 1993).

cinyras [Papilio (Heraclides) thoas]: mostly seen as conspecific with P. thoas (e.g., D'Abrera 1981, D'Almeida 1966, Munroe 1961, Racheli & Pariset 1993:436, Tyler et al. 1994), but treated as a separate species by Collins & Morris (1985:89), and Hancock (1983).

clarius [Parnassius (Driopa) ariadne]: the species has in the past often been referred to under this name (e.g., Bryk 1935, Eisner 1974) which, however, is invalid as a junior primary homonym.

cleotas [Papilio (Pterourus) menatius]: previously treated as a separate species (e.g., Collins & Morris 1985:86, D'Almeida 1966, De Vries 1987, Hancock 1983), but now seen as conspecific with P. menatius by Tyler et al. (1994).

codrus [Graphium (Graphium)]: this species is seen by some authors to include G. empedovana (D'Abrera 1982:96, Parsons 1999:251), which is treated here as a separate species (see below).

coelus [Parides vercingetorix]: in the previous literature the species was known under this name (e.g., Collins & Morris 1985, D'Almeida 1966, Hancock 1983) which, however, is invalid as a junior primary homonym; vercingetorix Oberthür is available as a subjective replacement name (Tyler et al. 1994).

coloro [Papilio (Papilio) polyxenes]: previously regarded as a separate species (Collins & Morris 1985:95) or placed with P. zelicaon (D'Almeida 1966:243, Miller & Brown 1981), but now regarded as conspecific with P. polyxenes (Fujioka et al. 1997, Sperling 1987, Tyler et al. 1994).

columbus [Eurytides serville]: listed as a separate species by Collins & Morris (1985:51), D'Almeida (1966:259), Hancock (1983), and Munroe (1961), but recently regarded as conspecific with E. serville (Lamas, pers.com., Tyler et al. 1994:30).

cretica [Zerynthia (Allancastria)]: originally described and often still regarded as conspecific with Z. cerisy (e.g., Ackery 1975, Bryk 1934, Collins & Morris 1985, Hancock 1983, and Tolman & Lewington 1997); more recently, it has been accepted as a separate species based on constant differences of adults and early stages by several authors (Carbonell 1996b, De Prins & Iversen 1996, Olivier 1993).

croesus [Ornithoptera]: generally accepted as a separate species (e.g., Collins & Morris 1985:83, Hancock & Orr 1997, Munroe 1961, Otani & Kimura 1998, Tsukada & Nishiyama 1982:240, von Knötgen 1997), but recently considered as conspecific with O. priamus by Parsons (1996, 1999:226).

cyproeofila [Papilio (Druryia)]: previously this species was generally referred to as P. zenobius Godart (e.g., Carcasson 1975, Collins & Morris 1985:107, Hancock 1983, Munroe 1961), which, however, appears to be not an available name but an unjustified emendation of P. zenobia Fabricus (Hancock 1988b:297). In almost all the previous literature (see above), this name has been misspelled as "cypraeofila" resulting from an incorrect transliteration of the symbol "œ" used in the original description.

delphius [Parnassius (Koramius)]: for taxa formerly treated as conspecific with P. delphius, see also under P. acdestis, P. cardinal, P. maximinus, P. staudingeri, P. stenosemus, and P. stoliczkanus.

diodorus [Parides bunichus]: has sometimes been treated as a separate species (e.g., Collins & Morris 1985:68, D'Almeida 1966, Hancock 1983:47), but mostly regarded as conspecific with P. bunichus (Lamas pers.com., Rothschild & Jordan 1906, Tyler et al. 1994:28).

doddsi [Papilio (Achillides) dialis]: generally treated as concpecific with P. dialis (e.g., Bryk 1930, D'Abrera 1982:51), but recently elevated to species rank by Bauer & Frankenbach (1998), and Gu (1997).

dohertyi [Troides rhadamantus]: treated as a separate species by Collins & Morris (1985:79), D'Abrera (1982), and Tsukada & Nishiyama (1982:232), but regarded as conspecific with T. rhadamantus by Hancock (1983), Haugum & Low (1978-1985), and Munroe (1961).

dongalaicus [Parnassius (Parnassius) epaphus]: originally described as a separate species, but subsequently regarded as conspecific with P. epaphus (Bryk 1935); recently, again, it has been recognized as a separate species and as conspecific with rikihiroi Kawasaki, 1995 (see below) based on the sympatric occurence with P. epaphus (Sorimachi 1995, Sugisawa 1996).

dospassosi [Papilio (Heraclides) chiansiades]: originally described and subsequently regarded as a separate species (Collins & Morris 1985:90, Hancock 1983), but recently placed as conspecific with P. chiansiades (Tyler et al. 1994).

drucei [Parides anchises]: previusly often treated as a separate species (e.g., Collins & Morris 1985:70, D'Almeida 1966, Hancock 1983:47), but recently regarded as conspecific with P. anchises (Tyler et al. 1994:29).

earis [Protesilaus]: originally described and generally recognized as a separate species (e.g., Collins & Morris 1985:48, D'Abrera 1981, D'Almeida 1966:268, Hancock 1983, and Munroe 1961), but regarded as conspecific with P. telesilaus by Brown (1991), and Tyler et al. (1994:30); recently the species status has been reaffirmed by Bollino & Vitale (1999) based on constant differences in male genitalia between the two taxa.

embrikstrandi [Protesilaus protesilaus]: originally described and subsequently listed as a separate species by Collins & Morris (1985:48), D'Almeida (1966:268), Hancock (1983), and Munroe (1961), but recently regarded as conspecific with P. protesilaus (Brown 1991, Tyler et al. 1994:30).

empedovana [Graphium (Graphium)]: generally treated as a separate species (e.g., Collins & Morris 1985, Corbet & Pendlebury 1992, Saigusa et al. 1982, Treadaway 1995, and Tsukada & Nishiyama 1982), but regarded as conspecific with G. codrus by D'Abrera (1982:96) and Parsons (1999:251).

erlaces [Parides erithalion]: previously treated as a separate species by Collins & Morris (1985:70), D'Almeida (1966), and Hancock (1983:47), but recently regarded as conspecific with P. erithalion (Lamas pers.com., Tyler et al. 1994:29).

erostratinus [Papilio (Heraclides) erostratus]: originally described and subsequently treated as a separate species (e.g., Collins & Morris 1985:90, D'Abrera 1981, D'Almeida 1966:172, Hancock 1983), but now seen as conspecific with P. erostratus (Llorente-Bousquets et al. 1997, Tyler et al. 1994).

erskinei [Papilio (Menelaides)]: originally described and subsequently treated as a distinct species (Bryk 1930, Munroe 1961), it was later placed as conspecific with P. bridgei (Collins & Morris 1985, Hancock 1983, Parsons 1999, Racheli 1980), but recently has been accepted again as a separate species (Tennent 1999).

esperanza [Papilio (Pterourus)]: this species has been classified in the subgenus Heraclides by Collins & Morris (1985), and Hancock (1983), but it is recently included in the subgenus Pterourus by Tyler et al. (1994).

eupatorion [Mimoides lysithous]: generally regarded as conspecific with M. lysithous (e.g., Brown 1991, Collins & Morris 1985:49-50, D'Abrera 1981:69, and Tyler et al. 1994:31), but previously listed as a separate species by D'Almeida (1966:269).

euphorion [Ornithoptera priamus]: often accepted as a separate species (e.g., Collins & Morris 1985:83, Hancock 1983, Hancock & Orr 1997, Nielsen et al. 1996), but recently regarded as conspecific with O. priamus by Braby (2000), Munroe (1961), Otani & Kimura (1998), Parsons (1996), and von Knötgen (1997).

euphratoides [Graphium (Pathysa)]: in the past generally not treated as a distinct species (Collins & Morris 1985, Hancock 1983, Munroe 1961) and placed with either G. euphrates (e.g., D'Abrera 1982) or with G. decolor (e.g, Tsukada & Nishiyama 1982:413); elevated to species rank by Page (1987), and accepted as a species by Treadaway (1995); further clarification by additional comparative studies is apparently hindered by the taxon becoming exceedingly rare due to habitat destruction (Page 1987:235).

febanus [Byasa impediens]: sometimes accepted as a separate species endemic to Taiwan (e.g., Collins & Morris 1985, Igarashi & Fukuda 1997), but recently more often treated as conspecific with B. impediens from mainland China (Chou 1994, D'Abrera 1982, Fujioka et al. 1997, Hancock 1983, and Shirozu 1992).

feisthamelii [Iphiclides podalirius]: recently treated as a separate species by Fernandez-Rubio (1991), Tennent (1996), and Wohlfahrt (1996, 1998) but generally regarded as conspecific with I. podalirius (e.g., Collins & Morris 1985, De Prins & Iversen 1996, Hancock 1983, Munroe 1961, Tolman & Lewington 1997).

felderi [Parnassius (Driopa)]: until recently mostly treated as conspecific with P. eversmanni (e.g., Ackery 1975, Bryk 1935, Eisner 1974, Fujioka et al. 1997, Iwamoto & Inomata 1988, and Sorimachi 1995:173), but regarded as a separate species by Collins & Morris (1985), Korshunov & Gorbunov (1995:52), Tuzov et al. (1997:138), and Weiss (1999). Unpublished results of genetic studies (Zakharov in prep.) confirm the conspecifity of P. eversmanni and the taxa felderi and litoreus.

fernandus [Papilio (Druryia)]: originally described as a subspecies of P. cypraeofila and subsequently treated as such by most authors (e.g., Collins & Morris 1985, D'Abrera 1980, Hancock 1983), but recently regarded as a separate species by Ackery et al. (1995:149), and Hancock (1988b, 1993).

filaprae [Papilio (Druryia)]: originally described as a subspecies of P. cypraeofila and subsequently treated as such by most authors (e.g., by Collins & Morris 1985, D'Abrera 1980, Hancock 1983), it recently has been regarded as a separate species by Ackery et al. (1995:149), and Hancock (1988b, 1993).

flavisparsus [Graphium (Arisbe) illyris]: originally described and generally placed as conspecific with G. illyris (e.g., Ackery et al. 1995, Smith & Vane-Wright 2001), but recently regarded as a distinct species by D'Abrera (1997).

furvus [Papilio (Druryia) chrapkowskoides]: orginally described as a subspecies of P. bromius [= P. chrapkowskoides] and subsequently treated as such by most authors (e.g., Ackery et al. 1995, Bryk 1930, Hancock 1984b), but recently elevated to species rank by Wojtusiak & Pyrcz (1997) based on differences in male genitalia; the name furvus Joicey & Talbot, however, is invalid as a junior primary homonym, and nerminae Koçak, 1983, has been proposed as an objective replacement name (see below).

glacialis [Parnassius (Driopa)]: originally described as a separate species, but subsequently treated as conspecific with P. stubbendorfii (e.g., Bryk 1935, Munroe 1961, Verity 1905-1911) until Hering (1931) based on marked differences in male genitalia argued again in favour of species status, a view which since has been generally followed (e.g., Ackery 1975, Collins & Morris 1985, Eisner 1974, Hancock 1983, Sorimachi 1995); the allocation of several populations and named subspecies from the Asiatic mainland to either P. glacialis or P. stubbendorfii still needs to be clarified.

goodenovi [Graphium (Graphium) weiskei]: orginally described as a subspecies of G. weiskei based on a single specimen, it has been suggested to be specifically distinct from that species by Parsons (1999:250) on the basis of notable differences in male genitalia.

gothica [Papilio (Papilio) polyxenes]: originally described as a separate species, and later treated as conspecific with P. nitra (Hancock 1983:35) or with P. zelicaon (Collins & Morris 1985, Miller & Brown 1981, Scott 1986); also placed together with the other two taxa mentioned with P. polyxenes (Tyler et al. 1994).

gyas [Meandrusa lachinus]: previously in use as the species name (e.g., D'Abrera 1982, Munroe 1961, Talbot 1939, Rothschild 1895), but invalid as a junior primary homonym; lachinus Fruhstorfer is available as a subjective replacement name for this taxon (see below).

harmodius [Mimoides xeniades]: the name harmodius has long been in use for this species (e.g., Collins & Morris 1985, D'Abrera 1981, D'Almeida 1966, Hancock 1983, Munroe 1961) but it is invalid as a junior primary homonym (Brown 1991).

harrisianus [Mimoides lysithous]: generally regarded as conspecific with M. lysithous (e.g., Brown 1991, Collins & Morris 1985:50, D'Abrera 1981:69, and Tyler et al. 1994:31), but has previously been listed as a separate species by D'Almeida (1966:277).

hector [Pachliopta]: this species has been transfered to the (sub)genus Pharmacophagus by Hancock (1988a), which, however, has not been followed by other authors.

hedistus [Byasa]: generally accepted as a separate species (e.g., Collins & Morris 1985, Hancock 1983, Munroe 1961), but treated as conspecific with B. dasarada by D'Abrera (1982:37).

hercules [Meandrusa sciron]: this name has previously been in use for this taxon (e.g., Rothschild 1895, Tsukada & Nishiyama 1982:366) but it is invalid as a junior primary homonym; sciron Leech is available as a subjective replacement name (see below).

heringi [Papilio (Menelaides) fuscus/tydeus]: previously listed as a distinct species (e.g., Bryk 1930, Collins & Morris 1985, Racheli & Haugum 1983), it is now regarded as an interspecific hybrid between P. fuscus and P. tydeus (Hancock 1983:38, Tennent 1999).

hermeli [Papilio (Achillides)]: a recently described species from Mindoro Island, Philippines, closely related to P. chikae, and accepted as a separate species by Bauer & Frankenbach (1998), Shimogori (1997), and Treadaway (1995).

hermosanus [Papilio (Achillides) paris]: generally treated as a subspecies of P. paris, but considered as a separate species by Shirozu (1992).

hetaerius [Protesilaus molops]: originally described as a subspecies of P. molops and treated as such by most authors (e.g., Brown 1991, Collins & Morris 1985, D'Abrera 1981, Tyler et al. 1994), but previously listed as a separate species by D'Almeida (1966:279), and placed as conspecific with P. macrosilaus by Hancock (1983:20).

hide [Parnassius (Koramius) patricius]: first described and subsequently treated as a separate species (e.g., Chou 1994, Sorimachi 1995, Weiss 1992); here, regarded as conspecific with P. patricius with which it is closely related and from which it is geographically separated.

hipparchus [Mimoides phaon]: generally regarded as conspecific with M. phaon (e.g, Brown 1991, Collins & Morris 1985, Tyler et al. 1994:31), but listed as a separate species by D'Abrera (1981), D'Almeida (1966:280), and Munroe (1961).

hippocrates [Papilio (Papilio) machaon]: generally regarded as conspecific with P. machaon (Bryk 1930, D'Abrera 1990, Fujioka et al. 1997), but also treated as a separate species (e.g., Collins & Morris 1985:94, Hancock 1983, Munroe 1961).

hoenei [Parnassius (Driopa) stubbendorfii]: generally regarded as conspecific with P. stubbendorfii based on its allopatric occurence (e.g., Ackery 1975, Bryk 1935, Collins & Morris 1985, Eisner 1974, Fujioka et al. 1997, and Hancock 1983), but treated as a separate species by Fukuda et al. (1982), Kitahara (1990), Korzhunov & Gorbunov (1995:51), and Sorimachi (1995:128).

huberi [Parnassius (Tadumia) schultei]: recently described as a distinct species closely related to P. acco and P. schultei; in judging from the original description (Paulus 1999), the taxon resembles more closely P.schultei with which it is allopatric and treated here as conspecific.

hunnyngtoni [Parnassius (Tadumia)]: in the past often treated as conspecific with P. acco (e.g., Ackery 1975, Eisner 1976, Hancock 1983), but now generally accepted as a separate species which is morphologically and ecologically quite distinct from P. acco (Bryk 1935, Collins & Morris 1985, D'Abrera 1990, Häuser 1993, Inaoka & Sugisawa 1997, Sorimachi 1994a, Sorimachi 1995, Weiss 1991).

impediens [Byasa]: this taxon has generally been cited Byasa impediens Rothschild, 1895, but as realized by Fujioka et al. (1997) it was originally described as an infrasubspecific form (Rothschild 1895:269-270), and has only been made available through a subsequent citation as a subspecies by Seitz (1907:9).

imperiatrix [Teinopalpus imperialis]: regarded as conspecific with T. imperialis by most authors (e.g., D'Abrera 1982, Eisner 1974, Talbot 1939, Turlin 1991), but recently treated as a distinct species based on sympatric occurence with T. imperialis by Gaonkar (in prep.).

incertus [Graphium (Pazala)]: originally described and subsequently treated as conspecific with G. tamerlanus (e.g., Bryk 1930), but recently regarded as a separate species by Chou (1994), and Koiwaya (1993) who noticed differences in male genitalia.

ingenuus [Battus chalceus]: depending on the identity of the type specimen of chalceus Rothschild & Jordan, 1906 (see above) this might represent the valid name for this species, which has already been used by some authors (Llorente-Bousquets et al. 1997, Möhn 1999, Racheli & Pariset 1992).

interjecta [Papilio (Druryia) interjectana]: previously in general use as the species name (e.g., Collins & Morris 1985, D'Abrera 1980, Hancock 1984b, 1993, Larsen 1991), which, however, is invalid as a junior primary homonym; interjectana Vane-Wright, 1995 has been proposed as an objective replacement name (see below).

interjectana [Papilio (Druryia)]: this name has been proposed as an objective replacement for interjecta van Someren, 1960, which is invalid as a junior primary homonym (Ackery et al. 1995:150).

joanae [Papilio (Papilio) machaon]: previously often treated as a separate species (Collins & Morris 1985:95, Hancock 1983, Miller & Brown 1981, Sperling 1987), but recently regarded as conspecific with P. machaon (Fujioka et al. 1997, Sperling & Harrison 1994, Tyler et al. 1994).

kahli [Papilio (Papilio) polyxenes]: previously regarded as a separate species (Collins & Morris 1985:95, Hancock 1983, Miller & Brown 1981), placed with P. nitra (D'Almeida 1966:203), now presumed to represent a hybrid between P. machaon and P. polyxenes (Layberry et al. 1998, Sperling 1987), or treated as conspecific with P. polyxenes (Fujioka et al. 1997, Scott 1986, Tyler et al. 1994).

kigoma [Graphium (Arisbe)]: originally described as a subspecies of G. almansor and subsequently also placed with G. poggianus (Ackery et al. 1995, Hancock 1985), it has recently been accepted as a separate species due to constant differences in male genitalia and wing pattern by Smith & Vane-Wright (2001).

kiritshenkoi [Parnassius (Koramius) staudingeri]: generally treated as conspecific with P. delphius (Ackery 1975, Bryk 1935) or P. staudingeri (Sorimachi 1995, Weiss 1992); recently listed as a separate species by Tuzov et al. (1997:139) based on a sympatric occurence with P. staudingeri.

kosii [Graphium (Graphium) weiskei]: recently described as a separate species from New Ireland related to G. weiskei (Müller & Tennent 1999); despite differences in wing pattern and male genitalia it is provisionally retained here under G. weiskei due to its allopatric distribution.

kotzebuea [Pachliopta]: previously often regarded as concpecific with P. aristolochiae (e.g., Hancock 1983, Munroe 1961), but more recently accepted as a separate species following the study by Hiura & Alagar (1971), e.g., by Collins & Morris (1985), Treadaway (1995), and Tsukada & Nishiyama (1982); according to Page & Treadaway (1995:148), this Philippine species might be more closely related to P. polyphontes from Sulawesi.

labeyriei [Parnassius (Tadumia) maharaja]: first described as a separate species and treated as such by Chou (1994) and Weiss (1992), it is now regarded as conspecific with P. maharaja (D'Abrera 1990, Häuser 1993, Ohya 1993, Sorimachi 1995).

lacandones [Protographium dioxippus]: previously treated as a separate species (e.g., Collins & Morris 1985, D'Almeida 1966, De Vries 1987, Hancock 1983, Munroe 1961) but recently regarded as conspecific with P. dioxippus by Brown (1991), Llorente-Bousquets et al. (1997), and Tyler et al. (1994:30).

lachinus [Meandrusa]: often treated as conspecific with M. sciron (Chou 1994, Collins & Morris 1985, D'Abrera 1982, Hancock 1983, Munroe 1961), but regarded as a distinct species by several authors (Corbet & Pendlebury 1987:87, Rothschild 1895, Talbot 1939); this taxon appeared previously in the literature under the name of gyas Westwood, which however is invalid as a junior primary homonym (see above).

Leptocircini [Papilioninae]: for the availability and correct usage of the tribal name, see Smith & Vane-Wright (2001:506-508).

leucosilaus [Protesilaus]: previously regarded as conspecific with P. molops by Collins & Morris (1985) and Hancock (1983:20), but treated as a separate species by Brown (1991), D'Almeida (1966:283), and Tyler et al. (1994).

leytensis [Pachliopta]: this taxon has originally been proposed and sometimes subsequently been treated as a separate species from buraki/phegeus (e.g., Tsukada & Nishiyama 1982:277), but the two taxa are linked by gradual intermediate forms and are thus now regarded as conspecific (Collins & Morris 1985, Page & Treadaway 1995, Treadaway 1995:96-97); therefore, leytensis can be used as the valid species name instead of phegeus which is invalid a a junior homonym (see below).

liponesco [Graphium (Arisbe)]: originally described as a subspecies of G. policenes and treated as such by most authors, it has been considered as conspecific with G. policenoides by Ackery et al. (1995) and Hancock (1986), and is recently regarded as a separate species (D'Abrera 1997, Larsen 1994, Smith & Vane-Wright 2001).

litoreus [Parnassius (Driopa) felderi]: generally treated as conspecific with P. eversmanni or P. felderi (e.g., Bryk 1935, Eisner 1974, Iwamoto & Inomata 1988, Weiss 1999), but it has been listed as a possibly distinct species by Korshunov & Gorbunov (1995:52). Unpublished results of genetic studies (Zakharov in prep.) confirm the conspecifity of P. eversmanni and the taxa felderi and litoreus.

liudongi [Parnassius (Koramius) acdestis]: recently described as a separate species closely related to P. acdestis; in judging from the orginal description (Huang 1999), the differences mentioned in male genitalia and female sphragis based on two specimens of each sex do not appear to warrant distinction at species level but rather seem to be within common margins of intraspecific variation.

longicaudata [Luehdorfia]: a recently discovered taxon which partly coexists with L. chinensis and has thus generally been accepted as a separate species (e.g., Fujioka et al. 1997, Igarashi & Fukuda 1997, Kato 1998, Nosé 1990, and Watanabe 1996).

louristana [Zerynthia (Allancastria)]: originally described and long regarded as a subspecies of Z. cerisy (e.g., Ackery 1975, Bernardi 1970, Bryk 1934, D'Abrera 1990, Eisner 1974); recently treated as a separate species based on marked morphological and ecological differences (Carbonell 1996a, Collins & Morris 1985, Hancock 1983, Kuhna 1977).

luzviae [Papilio (Menelaides) rumanzovia]: described as a separate species related to P. rumanzovia and treated as such, albeit with "some doubt", by Treadaway (1995:97) hinting that it might represent a hybrid between P. rumanzovia and P. lowi or P. memnon; until further clarification the taxon is retained here provisionally under P. rumanzovia.

lycimenes [Parides panares]: previously in use as the species name (Collins & Morris 1985:70, D'Almeida 1966, De Vries 1987, Hancock 1983:47), untill the Mexican panares Gray, 1853 was regarded as conspecific (see below); the latter being the senior name, the species is now referred to as P. panares (Llorente-Bousquets et al. 1997, Tyler et al. 1994:29).

lycophron [Papilio (Heraclides) astyalus]: a senior synonym which previously has been in use as the species name (e.g., D'Abrera 1981, Munroe 1961).

macrosilaus [Protesilaus]: previously regarded as conspecific with P. protesilaus by D'Abrera (1981) and Munroe (1961), but now generally accepted as a separate species (e.g., Brown 1991, Collins & Morris 1985:48, D'Almeida 1966, Hancock 1983, Tyler et al.1994).

maharaja [Parnassius (Tadumia)]: first described as a species, but later often placed as a subspecies of P. cephalus (Ackery 1975, Bryk 1922, Eisner 1976, Hancock 1983); now generally accepted as a separate species, (e.g., Collins & Morris 1985, Bryk 1935, Häuser 1993, Ohya 1993, Sorimachi 1995, Weiss 1992).

maraho [Chilasa (Agehana)]: sometimes regarded as conspecific with C. elwesi (e.g., D'Abrera 1982:86), but generally accepted as a distinct species (e.g., Collins & Morris 1985, Hancock 1983, Shirozu 1992).

marchandii [Protographium thyastes]: listed as a separate species by Collins & Morris (1985:51), D'Almeida (1966:292), De Vries (1987), and Hancock (1983), but recently regarded as conspecific with P. thyastes (Brown 1991, Lamas pers.com., Llorente-Bousquets et al. 1997, and Tyler et al. 1994:30).

maroni [Papilio (Heraclides) chiansiades]: first described and later often treated as a separate species (e.g., Collins & Morris 1985:91, D'Abrera 1981, D'Almeida 1966:198, Hancock 1983, Munroe 1961:45), but recently regarded as conspecific with P. chiansiades (Collins & Morris 1985:313, Tyler et al. 1994).

matusiki [Papilio (Heraclides) anchisiades]: described as a distinct species based on a single specimen, which is now regarded as an aberrant form of P. anchisiades (Racheli 1995:79, Tyler et el. 1994).

maximinus [Parnassius (Koramius)]: previously regarded as conspecific with P. delphius (e.g., Ackery 1975, Bryk 1935, Collins & Morris 1985, Hancock 1983, Munroe 1961), but recently recognized as a separate species by Kreuzberg (1985), a view which has since been generally followed (Lukhtanov & Lukhtanov 1994, Sorimachi 1995, Tshikolovets 2000, Tuzov et al. 1997, Weiss 1992).

melonius [Papilio (Heraclides)]: generally treated as conspecific with P. thoas (e.g., Brown & Heinemann 1972, Bryk 1930, D'Abrera 1981, D'Almeida 1966, Smith et al. 1994), but recently placed as a distinct species by Tyler et al. (1994).

microps [Papilio (Druryia)]: an available subjective replacement name for P. aethiops Rothschild & Jordan, which is invalid as a junior primary homonym (see above).

milon [Graphium (Graphium)]: often treated as conspecific with G. sarpedon (e.g., D'Abrera 1982, Hancock 1983, Saigusa et al. 1982), but recognized as a distinct species by Murayama (1978) and now mostly accepted as such (Collins & Morris 1985, Fujioka et al. 1997, Roos 1993, Tsukada & Nishiyama 1982).

mithras [Parides chabrias]: previously treated as a separate species (e.g., Collins & Morris 1985:68, D'Almeida 1966, Hancock 1983:47), but recently regarded as conspecific with P. chabrias (Lamas pers.com., Tyler et al. 1994:28).

moebii [Graphium (Arisbe) hachei]: this taxon had been described as a separate species but is generally seen as conspecific with G. hachei (Ackery et al. 1995, Bryk 1930, D'Abrera 1997, Smith & Vane-Wright pers.com.).

monticolum [Graphium (Graphium)]: originally described and still sometimes regarded as conspecific with G. sarpedon (e.g, Saigusa et al. 1982, Tsukada & Nishiyama 1982:376), it is now generally treated as a distinct species (e.g., Collins & Morris 1985, D'Abrera 1982, Hancock 1983, Parsons 1999:245, and Roos 1993).

nandadevinensis [Parnassius stoliczkanus]: this taxon has been based on a single male specimen and was described as a distinct species; judged from the original descrription, it could probably represent an aberrant specimen of P. stoliczkanus or even P. acdestis, but a definite statement can hardly be made before more material or information becomes available (see Häuser 1993:141, Huang 1999:337, Kawasaki 1996:36, Weiss 1992:101).

neosilaus [Protographium]: listed as a separate species by D'Almeida (1966:294), but generally regarded as conspecific with P. agesilaus (Brown 1991, Collins & Morris 1985, Hancock 1983, Tyler et al. 1994:30).

nephalion [Parides anchises]: previously treated as a separate species (e.g, Collins & Morris 1985:70, D'Almeida 1966, Hancock 1983:47), but recently regarded as conspecific with P. anchises (Lamas pers.com., Tyler et al. 1994:30).

nerminae [Papilio (Druryia) chrapkowskoides]: proposed as an objective replacement name for P. bromius furvus Joicey & Talbot, 1926, which is invalid as a junior primary homonym (see above); the taxon has recently been treated as a distinct species by Wojtusiak & Pyrcz (1997).

neyi [Papilio (Pterourus) zagreus]: previously often regarded as a separate species (e.g., Collins & Morris 1985:85, D'Almeida 1966, Hancock 1983, Munroe 1961), but recently treated as conspecific with P. zagreus (Tyler et al. 1994).

nigrescens [Graphium (Arisbe) policenoides]: the name nigrescens Eimer, 1889, which previously has often been used for this species (e.g., Berger 1981, Carcasson 1975, Hancock 1983, Munroe 1961), is invalid as a junior primary homonym (Larsen 1994).

nigricornis [Protesilaus protesilaus]: listed as a separate species by Collins & Morris (1985), D'Almeida (1966:295), and Hancock (1983),but generally regarded as conspecific with P. protesilaus (e.g., D'Abrera 1981, Brown 1991, Munroe 1961, and Tyler et al. 1994).

nigrilima [Bhutanitis thaidina]: originally described as a separate species and listed as such by Chou (1994), but subsequently synonymized with B. thaidina at species level by Sorimachi (1994b).

nitra [Papilio (Papilio) polyxenes]: previously often treated as a separate species (Collins & Morris 1985:95, Hancock 1983, Munroe 1961) but now generally placed with P. zelicaon (Layberry et al. 1998, Miller & Brown 1981, Scott 1986); also seen as conspecific with P. polyxenes (Sperling 1987, Tyler et al. 1994).

nosei [Parnassius (Tadumia) maharaja]: described as a separate species and treated as such by Chou (1994) and Weiss (1992), it is now seen as conspecific with P. maharaja (Häuser 1993, Ohya 1993, Sorimachi 1995).

nubilus [Papilio (Menelaides) nephelus/polytes]: previously often listed as a rare, albeit distinct species (e.g., D'Abrera 1982, Munroe 1961), but now regarded as an interspecific hybrid between P. nephelus and P. polytes (Collins & Morris 1985, Tsukada & Nishiyama 1982:307).

oberon [Papilio (Menelaides) aegeus]: originally described and subsequently often treated as a separate species (e.g., Bryk 1930, Racheli 1980), but recently seen as conspecific with P. aegeus (Collins & Morris 1985, Hancock 1983, Tennent 1999).

oberthueri [Protographium agesilaus/philolaus]: listed as a separate species by Collins & Morris (1985:57), D'Abrera (1981), D'Almeida (1966:296), Hancock (1983), and Munroe (1961); now recognized as an interspecific hybrid between P. agesilaus and P. philolaus (Brown 1991:383, Haugum 1987, Tyler et al.1994).

odin [Graphium (Arisbe) schubotzi]: the name is invalid as a junior primary homonym (Ackery et al. 1995:162, Smith & Vane-Wright, 2001), but has until recently been in general use for this species (e.g., Berger 1981, Carcasson 1975, Hancock 1983, Munroe 1961).

oedipus [Mimoides lysithous]: the name oedipus is invalid as a junior primary homonym and the taxon is now known under the name of sebastianus Oberthür (see below); it is generally regarded as conspecific with M. lysithous (e.g., Brown 1991, D'Abrera 1981), but was listed as a separate species by D'Almeida (1966).

okinawensis [Papilio (Achillides) bianor]: generally regarded as a subspecies of P. bianor (e.g., Bryk 1930, Collins & Morris, 1985:111, Fujioka et al. 1997:250), but has been treated as a distinct species by Fukuda et al. (1982).

olbrechtsi [Graphium (Arisbe)]: generally accepted as a separate species (e.g., Berger 1981, Carcasson 1975, Collins & Morris 1985:57, D'Abrera 1980, Hancock 1983, Munroe 1961, Smith & Vane-Wright 2001), but has been regarded as conspecific with G. auriger by Ackery et al. (1995), D'Abrera (1997), and Hancock (1985).

oregonius [Papilio (Papilio) machaon]: previously often treated as a separate species (e.g., Collins & Morris 1985:94, Hancock 1983, Miller & Brown 1981, Munroe 1961), but recently regarded as conspecific with P. machaon (Caterino & Sperling 1999, D'Abrera 1990, Fujioka et al. 1997, Sperling 1987, Tyler et al. 1994).

palu [Losaria]: previously regarded as conspecific with L. coon by Munroe (1961), and Tsukada & Nishiyama (1982:256), but now confirmed as a separate species (Collins & Morrris 1985, Hancock 1984a).

panares [Parides]: this taxon was previously regarded as conspecific with P. imphidamas (e.g., Bryk 1930, D'Almeida 1966), but recently has been transferred to lycimenes Boisduval, 1870, which resulted in this species now adopting the senior name (Llorente-Bousquets et al. 1997, Tyler et al. 1994).

peleides [Papilio (Heraclides)]: an ever enigmatic taxon never been recorded again since its original decription which quite likely represents a rare hybrid of unknown affinity or even an artifact; generally not recognized as a distinct species (Collins & Morris 1985, Hancock 1983), but listed by D'Almeida (1966), Munroe (1961), and Tyler et al (1994).

pelopidas [Graphium (Arisbe) leonidas]: listed as a separate species by Collins & Morris (1985:58), and D'Abrera (1980:44), but now regarded as conspecific with G. leonidas following its original placement (Ackery et al. 1995, Bryk 1930, D'Abrera 1997, Hancock 1983, Kielland 1990, Smith & Vane-Wright 2001).

penthesilaus [Protesilaus macrosilaus]: generally regarded as conspecific with P. macrosilaus (e.g., Brown 1991, Collins & Morris 1985:48-49, Hancock 1983:20, and Tyler et al. 1994:30) but also with P. protesilaus (D'Abrera 1981, Munroe 1961) or listed as a separate species (D'Almeida 1966:299).

perrhebus [Parides bunichus]: previously mostly treated as a separate species (e.g., Collins & Morris 1985:68, D'Almeida 1966, and Hancock 1983:47), but recently regarded as conspecific with P. bunichus (Lamas pers.com., Tyler et al. 1994:28).

phaeton [Papilio (Pterourus) menatius]: previously regarded as a subspecies of P. cleotas (e.g., D'Abrera 1981, D'Almeida 1966) or as a distinct species (Collins & Morris 1985, Hancock 1983), but now placed with P. menatius (Tyler et al. 1994); the name, however, is invalid as a junior primary homonym and syndemis Jordan, 1907, is available as a replacement name (see below).

phegeus [Pachliopta leytensis]: this name has long been in use for the species (e.g., Collins & Morris 1985, D'Abrera 1982, Munroe 1961), which, however, is invalid as a junior primary homonym; buraki Koçak, 1983 has been proposed as a replacement name (see above).

philetas [Battus madyes]: previously reated as a separate species (Collins & Morris 1985:65, D'Almeida 1966, Hancock 1983:47, Munroe 1961),but now regarded as conspecific with B. madyes (Lamas pers.com., Möhn 1999, Racheli & Pariset 1992:91, Tyler et al. 1994:28).

philoxenus [Byasa polyeuctes]: a name previously in use for this species (e.g., Munroe 1961), but invalid as a junior primary homonym.

phoebus [Parnassius (Parnassius)]: for taxa formerly treated as conspecific with P. phoebus, see also under P. sacerdos, and P. smintheus.

plateni [Troides]: treated as conspecific with T. rhadamantus by Hancock (1983), and Haugum & Low (1978-1985), but mostly regarded as a separate species (e.g., Collins & Morris 1985:79, D'Abrera 1982, Treadaway 1995:16, Tsukada & Nishiyama 1982:229); according to Treadaway (1995), it occurs sympatrically with T. rhadamantus on Balabac, Calamian, and Palawan.

policenoides [Graphium (Arisbe)]: in the previous literature this species has generally been referred to as nigrescens Eimer (e.g., Berger 1981, Collins & Morris 1985, Hancock 1983, Hancock 1986, Munroe 1961), a name, however, which is invalid as a junior homonym (Ackery et al. 1995, Larsen 1994, Smith & Vane-Wright 2001).

polyctor [Papilio (Achillides)]: previously regarded as a distinct species (e.g., Bauer & Frankenbach 1998, Collins & Morris 1985, Hancock 1983, Talbot 1939), but recently recognized as conspecific with P. bianor (Fujioka et al. 1997:290).

polyzelus [Parides erithalion]: previously treated as a separate species (e.g., Collins & Morris 1985:69, D'Almeida 1966, Hancock 1983:47), but recently regarded as conspecific with P. erithalion (Lamas pers.com., Tyler et al. 1994:29).

praecyola [Papilio (Druryia) fernandus]: orginally described and subsequently treated as a subspecies of P. cypraeofila, it has been recently placed with P. fernandus (Ackery et al. 1995, Hancock 1988b:301) while Larsen (pers. comm.) maintains it is different from P. fernandus.

priamus [Parnassius (Koramius) patricius]: originally described as a subspecies of P. acdestis, but subsequently recognized as belonging to P. patricius (Bryk 1935, Eisner 1976, Häuser 1993, Tuzov et al. 1997, Weiss 1992).

przewalskii [Parnassius (Tadumia) acco]: originally described as a separate species and subsequently treated as such by many authors (e.g., Bryk 1935, Munroe 1961, Verity 1905-1911); more recently, however, seen by most authors as conspecific with P. acco (e.g., Ackery 1975, Eisner 1976, Inaoka & Sugisawa 1997, Rose 2000, Shinkai 1997, Sorimachi 1994a, Sorimachi 1995, Weiss 1992).

pseudosilaus [Protesilaus protesilaus]: listed as a separate species by D'Almeida (1966:307), but generally regarded as conspecific with P. protesilaus (e.g., Brown 1991, Collins & Morris 1985, Munroe 1961, Tyler et al. 1994:30).

psittacus [Battus polydamas]: probably an available senior name for B. polydamas archidamas (Tyler et al. 1994); Papilio psittacus Molina, 1782 has hitherto sometimes been interpreted as representing a species of Castniidae (e.g., Racheli & Pariset, 1992:53), but no conclusive statement has yet been made due to the apparent unavailability of any type material.

ptolychus [Papilio (Menelaides) woodfordi]: previously often treated as a distinct species (e.g., Bryk 1930, Munroe 1961), but recently regarded as conspecific with P. woodfordi (Collins & Morris 1985, Parsons 1999, Racheli 1980, Tennent 1999); the two taxa were intoduced in the same paper and this name has been given precedence over woodfordi Godman & Salvin, 1888 as the species name by Parsons (1999) despite the fact that the latter name had already been given priority by Racheli (1980) acting as first reviser (see Tennnet 1999:215).

pulchristriata [Bhutanitis mansfieldi]: originally described as a subspecies of B. mansfieldi and still regarded as such (e.g., Sorimachi 1994b), but treated as a separate species by Chou (1994).

pylades [Graphium (Arisbe) angolanus]: the name is invalid as a junior primary homonym (Ackery et al. 1995:161), but has in former times been in general use for this species (e.g., Carcasson 1975, Munroe 1961).

pythia [Parnassius (Tadumia) cephalus]: this taxon is based on a single female specimen which was described as a separate species and listed as such by Munroe (1961), but is now generally treated as conspecific with P. cephalus (Bryk 1935, Häuser 1993, Ohya 1993, Kawasaki & Rose 1997, Weiss 1992).

rhadinus [Byasa mencius]: originallly described and generally placed as conspecific with B. mencius (e.g., Collins & Morris 1985, Fujioka et al. 1997), it was suggested by D'Abrera (1982:38) to be closer to B. nevilli, and has recently been elevated to species rank by Chou (1994).

rhodostictus [Papilio (Heraclides) isidorus]: previously treated as a separate species (e.g., Collins & Morris 1985:91, D'Almeida 1966, De Vries 1987, Hancock 1983, Munroe 1961), but recently seen as conspecific with P. isidorus (Racheli & Pariset 1993:434, Tyler et al. 1994).

richmondia [Ornithoptera]: now generally treated as a separate species (e.g, Braby 2000, Collins & Morris 1985, Hancock 1983, Hancock & Orr 1997, Nielsen et al. 1996, Parsons 1996, Parsons 1999:226), but sometimes also regarded as conspecific with O. primaus (Haugum & Low 1978-1985, Igarashi 1979, Munroe 1961, Otani & Kimura 1998, von Knötgen 1997); apparently, Amphrisius australis Swainson, 1851, is available as a senior synonym for this taxon, a name which then should be either suppressed or put to use as the valid species name (Nielsen et al. 1996:358).

rikihiroi [Parnassius (Parnassius) dongalaicus]: recently described as a separate species related to P. epaphus, and subsequently united with P. dongalaicus (Sorimachi 1995, Sugisawa 1996), which previously had been regarded as conspecific with P. epaphus (Bryk 1935; see above).

rogeri [Papilio (Heraclides)]: generally regarded as a distinct species (e.g., Collins & Morris 1985:91, D'Abrera 1981, D'Almeida 1966, Hancock 1983, Llorente-Bousquets et al. 1997), but recently treated as conspecific with P. pharnaces by Tyler et al. (1994:pl.80) who also stated that the taxon might be conspecific with P. anchisiades.

rothschildianus [Parnassius (Tadumia) acco]: originally described as a separate species and subsequently placed with baileyi or prezewalskii (e.g., Bryk 1935, Weiss 1992); more recently, however, these taxa are generally seen as comprising a single species conspecific with P. acco (Ackery 1975, Eisner 1976, Hancock 1983, Inaoka & Sugisawa 1997, Rose 2000, Shinkai 1997, Sorimachi 1994a, Sorimachi 1995).

ruckbeili [Parnassius (Parnassius) phoebus]: described originally as a subspecies of P. phoebus, it has in the past also been placed with P. actius (Hering 1935) or even accorded species rank (Eisner 1976:107); recent studies regard this taxon, again, as conspecific with P. phoebus (e.g., Kimura 1997, Shepard & Manyley 1998, Sorimachi 1995).

rudkini [Papilio (Papilio) polyxenes]: previously often treated as a separate species (e.g., Hancock 1983, Miller & Brown 1981) or placed with P. coloro (Collins & Morris 1985), but now placed as conspecific with P. polyxenes (Scott 1986, Tyler et al. 1994).

rurik [Mimoides lysithous]: mostly regarded as conspecific with M. lysithous (e.g., Brown 1991, Collins & Morris 1985:49-50, D'Abrera 1981:69, Tyler et al. 1994:31), but listed as a separate species by D'Almeida (1966:307).

rutulus [Papilio (Pterourus) glaucus]: generally regarded as a separate species (e.g., Caterino & Sperling 1999, Collins & Morris 1985, D'Almeida 1966, Hagen & Scriber 1995, Hancock 1983, Layberry et al. 1998, Miller & Brown 1981), but treated also as conspecific with P. glaucus by Scott (1986), and Tyler et al. (1994).

sacerdos [Parnassius (Parnassius)]: the populations of the European Alps have long been treated as conspecific with P. phoebus (e.g., Ackery 1975, Bryk 1935, Eisner 1976, Kimura 1997, Munroe 1961); however, they are not only geographically well separated but also distinct morphologically as well as in terms of habitat requirements and larval hostplants from Asian or North American taxa of the P. phoebus complex and thus should be accorded species status (see also, Häuser 1993, Nardelli 1991, Shepard & Manyley 1998).

saharae [Papilio (Papilio)]: previously mostly treated as conspecific with P. machaon (e.g., Bryk 1930, Collins & Morris 1985), but recently accepted as a separate species (Ackery et al. 1995, Fujioka et al. 1997, Pittaway et al. 1994, Tennent 1996).

sakontala [Papilio (Menelaides) polytes]: previously often listed as a rare, distinct species (e.g., Bryk 1930, D'Abrera 1982, Munroe 1961), but also treated as conspecific with polytes (Collins & Morris 1985, Talbot 1939) or seen as an interspecific hybrid between P. polytes and a related species (Fujioka et al. 1997:227, Hancock 1983:37).

sauteri [Atrophaneura horishanus]: a junior synonym that persisted for some time in the literature as the valid species name (e.g., Munroe 1961).

schaffgotschi [Graphium (Arisbe)]: originally described as a species, but regarded as conspecific with G. taboranus by Carcasson (1975), Collins & Morris (1985), D'Abrera (1980), and Dickson & Kroon (1978); raised again to species level by Hancock (1985), and subsequently accepted as a separate species (Ackery et al. 1995, Hancock 1993, Pringle et al. 1994, and Smith & Vane-Wright 2001).

schubotzi [Graphium (Arisbe)]: generally accepted as a separate species (e.g., Collins & Morris 1985:57, D'Abrera 1980, Hancock 1983, Munroe 1961, Smith & Vane-Wright 2001), but has been regarded as conspecific with G. auriger by Ackery et al. (1995), D'Abrera (1997), and Hancock (1985); this species has generally been known under the name of odin Strand, which is invalid as a junior homonym (see above).

schultei [Parnassius (Tadumia)]: recently described as a distinct species and generally accepted as such (e.g., Häuser 1993, Ohya 1993, Sorimachi 1995).

schuppi [Parides neophilus]: originally described as a separate species and subsequently listed as such by D'Almeida (1966:73) and Munroe (1961), it has also been considered as conspecific with P. aeneas (Collins & Morris, 1985, Hancock 1983), but is now seen as conspecific with P. neophilus (Tyler et al. 1994).

sciron [Meandrusa]: in former times regarded as a distinct species (Corbet & Pendlebury 1987:87, Rothschild 1895, Talbot 1939), but in the recent literature often treated as conspecific with M. lachinus (e.g., Chou 1994, Collins & Morris 1985, D'Abrera 1982, Hancock 1983, Munroe 1961); as the two taxa apparently both occur in southeastern China (Chou 1994, Leech 1892-1894), M. sciron is accepted here as a separate species; in the previous literature, this taxon is often listed as hercules Blanchard (e.g., Rothschild 1895, Tsukada & Nishiyama 1982) which, however, is an invalid name as a junior primary homonym (see above).

sebastianus [Mimoides lysithous]: generally regarded as conspecific with M. lysithous (e.g., Brown 1991, Collins & Morris 1985:50, Tyler et al. 1994:31) but listed as a separate species by D'Almeida (1966:296) under the name of oedipus Felder & Felder which, however, is invalid as a junior homonym (see above).

sichuanicus [Graphium (Pazala)]: recently described as a distinct species, which apparently occurs sympatrically with G. tamerlanus and G. timur (Koiwaya 1993).

sikkimensis [Papilio (Papilio) machaon]: generally regarded as conspecific with P. machaon (e.g., Bryk 1930, Collins & Morris (1985), but accepted as a separate species by Fujioka et al. (1997).

simo [Parnassius (Sachaia)]: for taxa formerly treated as conspecific with P. simo, see also under P. andreji, P. boedromius, and P. simonius.

simonius [Parnassius (Sachaia)]: originally described and later generally treated as conspecific with P. simo (e.g., Ackery 1975, Bryk 1935, Collins & Morris 1985, Munroe 1961); first regarded as a separate species by Kreuzberg (1985), and accepted as such by Gundorov (1998), Sorimachi (1995:74), Tshikolovets (1997), Tuzov et al. (1997:141), and Weiss (1991).

sisenna [Graphium (Arisbe) polistratus]: originally described as a separate species and listed as such by Munroe (1961), but generally placed under G. polistratus (Ackery et al. 1995, Hancock 1983).

sjoestedti [Papilio (Druryia) fuelleborni]: originally described and subsequently always treated as a distinct species (e.g., Carcasson 1975, Collins & Morris 1985, D'Abrera 1980, Kielland 1990), but recently placed as conspecific with P. fuelleborni (Ackery et al. 1995:149, Hancock 1989).

smintheus [Parnassius (Parnassius)]: originally described as a species, but subsequently always treated as conspecific with P. phoebus (e.g., Ackery 1975, Bryk 1935, Collins & Morris 1985, Eisner 1976, Ferris 1976, Munroe 1961, Sorimachi 1995); recent studies based on egg morphology and other characters (Shepard & Manley 1998) confirm that the North American populations from the Rocky Mountains should be regarded as distinct at species level (see also Häuser 1993, Layberry et al. 1998:79, Nardelli 1991, Tyler et al. 1994:pl.49).

staudingeri [Parnassius (Koramius)]: for a long time regarded as conspecific with P. delphius (Ackery 1975, Bryk 1935, Collins & Morris 1985, Eisner 1976, Hancock 1983, Munroe 1961); reinstated as a distinct species by Kreuzberg (1985), and now generally accepted as such (Chou 1994, Häuser 1993, Sorimachi 1995, Tshikolovets 2000, Tuzov et al. 1997, and Weiss 1992); a number of taxa currently subordinated under this species have also been suspected to represent distinct species and await further study (e.g., kiritschenkoi Avinov; see also Tshikolovets 1997:51, Tuzov et al. 1997:139, Weiss 1992:108).

steinbachi [Parides pizarro]: previously often treated as a separate species (e.g., Collins & Morris 1985:68, D'Almeida 1966, Hancock 1983:47), but recently regarded as conspecific with P. pizarro (Lamas pers.com., Tyler et al. 1994:28).

stenoptera [Byasa nevilli]: recently described as a separate species from Hainan allied to B. nevilli (Chou 1994, Gu 1997), a species which is not yet know to occur on the island but only on the Chinese mainland.

stenosemus [Parnassius (Koramius)]: originally described as a subspecies of P. delphius, and long treated as conspecific with P. delphius or P. stoliczkanus (e.g., Ackery 1975, Collins & Morris 1985, Eisner 1976, Hancock 1983, Verity 1905-1911); subsequently treated as a separate species by Bryk (1935), a view which recently has been generally accepted also based on sympatric occurence with P. stoliczkanus (Inaoka & Ogawa 1992, Munroe 1961, Sorimachi 1995, Weiss 1992).

stoliczkanus [Parnassius (Koramius)]: first described as a distinct species and mostly treated as such (Bryk 1935, Häuser 1993, Inaoka & Ogawa 1992, Collins & Morris 1985, D'Abrera 1990, Munroe 1961, Sorimachi 1995, Weiss 1992), but sometimes regarded as conspecific with P. delphius (e.g., Ackery 1975, Eisner 1976, Hancock 1983, Verity 1905-1911).

strandi [Pachliopta phlegon]: proposed as replacement name for annae Felder & Felder, 1861, which is invalid as a junior primary homonym (see above); the taxon is generally seen as conspecific with phlegon Felder & Felder, 1864 (e.g., Collins & Morris 1985, Treadaway 1995, Tsukada & Nishiyama 1982), which takes precedence as the valid species name.

streckerianus [Battus polydamas]: often treated as a separate species (Collins & Morris 1985:65, D'Almeida 1966, Hancock 1983:47, Möhn 1999, Munroe 1961, Racheli & Pariset 1992:79), but also regarded as conspecific with B. polydamas based on the strictly allopatric occurence (Lamas pers.com., Tyler et al. 1994:28).

stresemanni [Graphium (Graphium)]: originally described as a subspecies of G. weiskei and subsequently treated as such (Munroe 1961), it is now generally recognized as a distinct species (e.g., Collins & Morris 1985, Hancock 1983, Parsons 1999; Saigusa et al. 1982).

sulphurus [Parnassius (Driopa) glacialis]: this taxon was described as a distinct species on the basis of a single male specimen allegedly from Tibet but without reliable locality data; it has been synonymized by Bryk (1935) with P. glacialis, a view which has subsequently been followed (e.g., Fujioka et al. 1997).

sumatranum [Graphium (Graphium) cloanthus]: generally placed as a subspecies of G. cloanthus (e.g, Corbet & Pendlebury 1992, D'Abrera 1982, Tsukada & Nishiyama 1982), but treated as a separate species by Collins & Morris (1985) following Hancock (1983).

syfanius [Papilio (Achillides)]: previously held to be conspecific with P. bianor (e.g., Bryk 1930), later generally regarded as a distinct species (e.g., Bauer & Frankenbach 1998, Collins & Morris 1985, D'Abrera 1990, Hancock 1983), but recently suggested to be conspecific with P. maackii (Fujioka et al. 1997:290).

syndemis [Papilio (Pterourus) menatius]: this is an available replacement name for P. phaeton Lucas, which is invalid as a junior primary homonym (see above); the taxon was previously treated as a separate species (Collins & Morris 1985:86, Hancock 1983) or placed with P. cleotas (D'Abrera 1981, D'Almeida 1966) but is now seen as conspecific with P. menatius (Tyler et al. 1994).

taibai [Luehdorfia longicaudata]: described as a distinct species, but generally regarded as conspecific with L. longicaudata (Fujioka et al. 1997, Watanabe 1996).

tamerlanus [Graphium [Pazala]]: generally recognized as a distinct species (e.g., Bryk 1930, Collins & Morris 1985, Hancock 1983, Munroe 1961), but regarded as conspecific with P. alebion by D'Abrera (1990).

tasso [Papilio (Heraclides) himeros/torquatus]: previously often listed as a distinct species (e.g., D'Almeida 1966, Munroe 1961) or considered as a rare aberration of P. torquatus (Hancock 1983), but now regarded as an interspecific hybrid between P. himeros and P. torquatus (Tyler et al. 1994).

timias [Parides eurimedes]: previously treated as a separate species (e.g., Collins & Morris 1985:71, D'Almeida 1966, Hancock 1983:47), but recently regarded as conspecific with P. eurimedes (Lamas pers.com., Tyler et al. 1994:29).

timur [Graphium [Pazala]]: originally described as a subspecies of G. tamerlanus, and subsequently placed as conspecific with G. alebion (Bryk 1930); recently treated as a separate species by Chou (1994) and Koiwaya (1993), based on differences in male genitalia and sympatric occurences with G. tamerlanus.

trapeza [Mimoides xynias]: previously often listed as a separate species (e.g., Collins & Morris 1985:50, D'Abrera 1981, D'Almeida 1966:316, Hancock 1983, Munroe 1961), but recently regarded as conspecific with M. xynias by Brown (1991), Lamas (pers.com.), and Tyler et al. (1994:30).

travassosi [Protesilaus protesilaus]: originally described and subsequently listed as a separate species by Collins & Morris (1985), D'Almeida (1966:317), and Munroe (1961); regarded as conspecific with P. embrikstrandi by Hancock (1983:20), a taxon which is now seen as conspecific with P. protesilaus (Brown 1991, Tyler et al. 1994:30).

ucalegonides [Graphium (Arisbe) fulleri]: listed as a separate species by Berger (1981), Carcasson (1975), Collins & Morris (1985), D'Abrera (1980), Hancock (1983), and Munroe (1961); recently regarded as conspecific with G. fulleri by Ackery et al. (1995), D'Abrera (1997), Hancock (1985), and Smith & Vane-Wright (2001).

ufipa [Papilio (Druryia)]: originally described and subsequently treated as a subspecies of P. bromius [= P. chrapkowskoides] (Carcasson 1975, D'Abrera 1980), later also placed with P. thuraui (Hancock 1984b), but recently accepted as a separate species by Ackery et al. (1995:157), D'Abrera (1997), and Kielland (1990).

victorinus [Papilio (Pterourus) menatius]: previously treated as a separate species (e.g., Collins & Morris 1985:86, D'Abrera 1981, D'Almeida 1966, De Vries 1987, Hancock 1983, Llorente-Bousquets et al. 1997, Scott 1986), but seen as conspecific with P. menatius by Tyler et al. (1994).

walkeri [Papilio (Menelaides) polytes]: previously often listed as a rare, distinct species (e.g., Bryk 1930, Munroe 1961), but also treated as conspecific with P. polytes (Collins & Morris 1985, Talbot 1939) or seen as an interspecific hybrid between P. polytes and another related species (Fujioka et al. 1997:227; Hancock 1983:37).

weberi [Graphium (Arisbe) fulleri]: listed as a separate species by Carcasson (1975), Collins & Morris (1985), D'Abrera (1980:42), and Hancock (1983); recently placed as conspecific with G. fulleri (Ackery et al. 1995, D'Abrera 1997, Hancock 1985, Smith & Vane-Wright 2001).

weiskei [Graphium (Graphium)]: for taxa formerly included under this spescies see also under G. stresemanni (see above).

wilsoni [Papilio (Druryia) nireus]: originally described and subsequently sometimes accepted as a separate species (e.g., Bryk 1930, D'Abrera 1997); now generally seen as conspecific with P. nireus (Ackery et al. 1995, Hancock 1984b).

woodfordi [Papilio (Menelaides)]: the taxa woodfordi and ptolychus Godman & Salvin, 1888, had been introduced in the same paper but are now regarded as conspecific (see above); the name ptolychus has been given precedence over woodfordi Godman & Salvin, 1888, as the species name by Parsons (1999) despite the fact that the latter name had already been given priority by Racheli (1980) acting as first reviser (see Tennnet 1999:215).

xanticles [Protographium philolaus]: listed as a separate species by Collins & Morris (1985:47), D'Abrera (1981), D'Almeida (1966:317), Hancock (1983), and Munroe (1961), but recently regarded as conspecific with P. philolaus (Brown 1991, Lamas pers.com., and Tyler et al. 1994:30).

xeniades [Mimoides]: this species was long know under the name of harmodius Doubleday (e.g., Collins & Morris 1985, D'Abrera 1981, D'Almeida 1966, Hancock 1983, Munroe 1961) which, however, is objectively invalid as a junior homonym (Brown 1991).

yulongensis [Bhutanitis thaidina]: originally described as a separate species and listed as such by Chou (1994), but subsequently synonymized with B. thaidina at species level by Sorimachi (1994b).

zelicaon [Papilio (Papilio)]: generally treated as a separate species (e.g., Collins & Morris 1985:94, D'Abrera 1990, D'Almeida 1966, Hancock 1983, Layberry et al. 1998, Miller & Brown 1981, Munroe 1961, Scott 1986, Sperling 1987), but recently also seen as conspecific with P. polyxenes (Fujioka et al. 1997, Tyler et al. 1994).

zenobius [Papilio (Druryia) cypraeofila]: in the past this species was generally referred to under the name of zenobius Godart, 1819 (e.g., Berger 1981, Carcasson 1975, Collins & Morris 1985:107, Hancock 1983, Munroe 1961), which, however, appears not to represent an available taxon but instead an unjustified emendation of the name P. zenobia Fabricus (Hancock 1988b297).

zetes [Battus zetides]: in the older literature, the species has been known under this name; the name Papilio zetes Westwood, 1847, however, is invalid as a junior primary homonym; zetides Munroe, 1971 has been proposed as an objective replacement name.

zoroastres [Papilio (Druryia) echerioides]: previously always treated as a separate species (e.g., Berger 1981, Carcasson 1975, Collins & Morris 1985, D'Abrera 1980, Hancock 1983, Kielland 1990, Larsen 1991), but recently seen as conspecific with P. echerioides by Ackery et a. (1995), and Hancock (1989, 1993).

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lepibull.gif (1046 Byte)References:

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